Social Indicators Research

, Volume 119, Issue 2, pp 909–924 | Cite as

A higher-Order Gratitude Uniquely Predicts Subjective Well-Being: Incremental Validity Above the Personality and a Single Gratitude

  • Chih-Che LinEmail author


This main purpose of this study tests whether a higher-order gratitude compassing multi-components (e.g., thank others, thank God, cherish blessings, appreciate hardship, and cherish the moment) explains variances in subjective well-being including life satisfaction and positive affect after controlling for gender, age, religion, the Big Five personality traits (e.g., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism), and a single gratitude. A total of 504 undergraduate participants were recruited to completed five inventories measuring the variables of interest. The higher-order gratitude made a significant unique contribution to life satisfaction (10 % of the variance, p < .001) and positive affect (2 % of the variance, p < .001) beyond the effects of demographic variables, the Big Five personality traits, and a single gratitude. This is consistent with the theoretical stance that the higher-order gratitude is more than just the Big Five personality traits or a single gratitude and is important in its own right for subjective well-being. Furthermore, it implies a multi-components gratitude is in deed different from a unifactorial gratitude and it seems more reasonable that trait gratitude is a higher-order construct including lower-order components.


Gratitude Subjective well-being Big Five Personality Positive psychology 


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Teacher Education CenterMing Chuan UniversityTaoyuan CountyTaiwan, ROC

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