Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 118, Issue 2, pp 657–671 | Cite as

Satisfaction with Life Scale in Adolescents: Evaluation of Factor Structure and Gender Invariance in a Norwegian Sample

  • Unni Karin MoksnesEmail author
  • Audhild Løhre
  • Don G. Byrne
  • Gørill Haugan
Article

Abstract

In spite of the significance of life satisfaction (LS) for adolescent health and well-being, the past decades have yielded limited progress in investigating the psychometric properties of a well-used inventory measuring LS, The satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in adolescents. The present study aimed at investigating the factor structure, gender invariance, and convergent validity of the Norwegian version of the five-item SWLS in adolescents 13–18 years. The study was based on a cross-sectional sample of 1,073 adolescents from rural areas in Mid-Norway, and the data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group analyses in AMOS. Results from the CFA supported a single-factor structure with correlated residual variances between items 4 and 5. The results from the multi-group analyses indicated configural and metric invariance of SWLS between genders, as indicated by invariant factor structure and factor loadings. The SWLS also showed high reliability and correlated in expected directions with measures of emotional symptoms and self-esteem, supporting the convergent validity of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the SWLS need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however the present results indicate that the SWLS is a questionnaire appropriate for assessing LS in a population of Norwegian adolescents.

Keywords

Psychometric properties Factorial invariance Subjective well-being Youth CFA 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Atienza, F. L., Balaguer, I., & Garcia-Merita, M. L. (2003). Satisfaction with life scale: Analysis of factorial invariance across sexes. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1255–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagozzi, R., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16, 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes, L. L. B., Harp, D., & Jung, W. S. (2002). Reliability generalization of scores on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Education and Psychological Measurement, 62, 603–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. London: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Byrne, M. B. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. Basic concepts, applications, and programming. USA: Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  8. Byrne, D. G., Davenport, S. C., & Mazanov, J. (2007). Profiles of adolescent stress: The development of the adolescent stress questionnaire (ASQ). Journal of Adolescence, 30, 393–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clench-Aas, J., Nes, R., Dalgard, O. S., & Aarø, L. E. (2011). Dimensionality and measurement invariance in the satisfaction with life scale in Norway. Quality of Life Research, 20, 1307–1317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diamantopolous, A., & Siguaw, J. (2008). Introducing LISREL. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  12. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality and Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. (2003). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 403–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dieserud, G., Røysamb, E., Ekeberg, O., & Kraft, P. (2001). Toward an integrative model of suicide attempt: A cognitive psychological approach. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 3, 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimitrov, D. M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43, 121–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erdogan, B., Bauer, T.N., Truxillo, D.M., & Mansfield, L.R. (2011). Whistle while you work: A review of the life satisfaction literature. Journal of Management. doi: 10.1177/0149206311429379.
  17. Gilman, R., & Huebner, S. (2006). Characteristics of adolescents who report very high life satisfaction. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 311–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glaesmer, H., Grande, G., Braehler, E., & Roth, M. (2011). The German version of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldbeck, L., Schmitz, T. G., Besier, T., Herschbach, P., & Henrich, G. (2007). Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence. Quality of Life Research, 16, 969–979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gouveia, V. V., Milfont, T. T., da Fonseca, P. N., & Coelho, J. A. P. (2009). Life satisfaction in Brazil: Testing the psychometric properties of the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) in five Brazilian samples. Social Indicators Research, 90, 267–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gray-Little, B., Williams, V. S. L., & Hancock, T. D. (1997). An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 443–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., & Anderson, R. (2010). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Hultell, D., & Gustavsson, J. P. (2008). A psychometric evaluation of the satisfaction with life scale in a Swedish nationwide sample of university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1070–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Millsap, R. E., & Olivera-Aguilar, M. (2012). Investigating measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp. 380–392). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  25. Moksnes, U. K., Byrne, D. G., Mazanov, J., & Espnes, G. A. (2010a). Adolescent stress: Evaluation of the factor structure of the adolescent stress questionnaire. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Moksnes, U.K. & Espnes, G.A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents–Gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0427-4.
  27. Moksnes, U. K., Moljord, I. E. O., Espnes, G. A., & Byrne, D. G. (2010b). The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 430–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Neto, F. (1993). The satisfaction with life scale: Psychometrics properties in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolesence, 22, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oladipo, S. E., & Balogun, S. K. (2012). How suitable is the satisfaction with life scale for use on adolescents in Nigeria. Science Journal of Psychology, 2012, 1–3.Google Scholar
  30. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Piko, B. F., & Hamvai, C. (2010). Parent, school and peer-related correlates of adolescents’ life satisfaction. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1479–1482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pons, D., Atienza, F. L., Balaguer, I., & Garcia-Merita, M. L. (2000). Satisfaction with life scale: Analysis of factorial invariance for adolescents and elderly persons. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 91, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009a). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10, 583–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009b). Youth life satisfaction measures: A review. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 128–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. California: Consulting Psychologist Press.Google Scholar
  38. Swami, V., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Malay satisfaction with life scale. Social Indicators Research, 92, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu, C., & Yao, G. (2006). Analysis of factorial invariance across gender in the Taiwan version of the satisfaction with life scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1259–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Unni Karin Moksnes
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Audhild Løhre
    • 1
    • 3
  • Don G. Byrne
    • 4
  • Gørill Haugan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Centre for Health Promotion and ResourcesTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Faculty of NursingSør-Trøndelag University CollegeTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Department of Social Work and Health ScienceNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  4. 4.Research School of PsychologyAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations