Social Indicators Research

, Volume 118, Issue 1, pp 57–69 | Cite as

Factor Structure and Convergent Validity of the Long and Abbreviated Versions of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale in an Italian Sample

  • Carla Zappulla
  • Ugo PaceEmail author
  • Valentina Lo Cascio
  • Giovanni Guzzo
  • E. Scott Huebner


We examined the psychometric characteristics of the long and abbreviated versions of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS) in the Italian contexts. In study 1 we assessed the factorial validity and reliability of the long and abbreviated versions of the MSLSS among Italian adolescents, while in study 2 we assessed the convergent validity of the abbreviated Italian version of the MSLSS by examining the associations between life satisfaction and well-established measures of adjustment. Furthermore, we explored the effect of adolescent gender and age on life satisfaction. Participants in the study 1 were 996 adolescents (48 % males) from 14 to 18 years of age (M = 16.06; SD = 1.51). Participants in study 2 were 380 adolescents (52 % males) from 14 to 19 years of age (M = 15.76; SD = 1.65). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized five-factor solution of the MSLSS, with a better goodness of fit for the abbreviated version of MSLSS. Moreover, indices of internal consistency revealed acceptable reliability coefficients across the five domains. Convergent validity was confirmed by the expected associations between the domains of the MSLSS and indexes of adjustment. Finally, results evidenced age differences, with oldest adolescents showing the highest levels of satisfaction on most of the domains.


Life satisfaction Measurement Confirmatory factor analysis Convergent validity 


  1. Achenbach, T., & Edelbrock, C. (1987). The manual for the youth self-report and profile. Burlington: University of Vermont.Google Scholar
  2. Akaike, H. (1974). A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, 19, 716–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antaramian, S. P., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2008). Adolescent life satisfaction. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 112–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cacioppo, M., Pace, U., & Zappulla, C. (2013). Parental psychological control, quality of family context and life satisfaction among Italian adolescents. Child Indicators Research, 6, 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Camuffo, M., Cerutti, R., Lucarelli, L., & Mayer, R. (1988). Children’s Depression Inventory. Adattamento italiano [Children’s Depression Inventory. Italian validation]. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.Google Scholar
  6. Cicchetti, D. (1991). Fractures in the crystal: Developmental psychopathology and the emergence of the self. Developmental Review, 11, 271–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Di Maggio, R., & Zappulla, C. (2013). Mothering, fathering, and Italian adolescents’ problem behaviors and life satisfaction: Dimensional and typological approach. Journal of Child and Family Studies. doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9721-6.Google Scholar
  8. Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness, and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55, 34–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Greenspoon, P. J., & Saklofske, D. (2001). Toward an integration of subjective wellbeing and psychopathology. Social Indicators Research, 54, 81–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guzzo, G., Lo Cascio, V., & Pace, U. (2013). The role of individual and relational characteristics on alcohol consumption among Italian adolescents: a discriminant function analysis. Child Indicators Research, 6, 605–618.Google Scholar
  11. Hollingshead, A. (1975). The four-factor index of social status (Unpublished manuscript). New Haven, CT: Yale University.Google Scholar
  12. Honaker, J., & King, G. (2010). What to do about missing values in time-series cross-section data. American Journal of Political Science, 54, 561–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Huebner, E. S. (1991). Initial development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children. Psychological Assessment, 6, 149–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huebner, E. S. (2001). Manual for the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. 2001 Version. Retrieved December 2012, from University of South Carolina.Google Scholar
  16. Huebner, E. S. (2004). Research on assessment of life satisfaction in children and adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 66, 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huebner, E. S., Valois, R. F., Paxton, R. J., & Drane, J. W. (2005). Middle school students’ perceptions of quality of life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huebner, E. S., Zullig, K. J., & Saha, R. (2012). Factor structure and reliability of an abbreviated version of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale. Child Indicator Research, 5, 561–657.Google Scholar
  19. Konu, A. I., & Rimpelä, M. (2002). Well-being in schools. A conceptual model. Health Promotion International, 17, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kovacs, M. (1980). Rating scale to assess depression in school-aged children. Acta Paedopsychiatria, 46, 305–315.Google Scholar
  21. Lo Cascio, V., Guzzo, G., Pace, F., & Pace, U. (2013). Anxiety and self-esteem as mediators of the relation between family communication and indecisiveness in adolescence. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance. doi: 10.1007/s10775-013-9243-1.Google Scholar
  22. Pace, U., & Zappulla, C. (2009). Identity processes and quality of emotional autonomy: The contribution of two developmental tasks on middle-adolescents’ subjective well-being. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 9, 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pace, U., & Zappulla, C. (2013). Detachment from parents, problem behaviors, and the moderating role of parental support among Italian adolescents. Journal of Family Issues, 34, 768–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paxton, S. J., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Hannan, P. J., & Eisenberg, M. E. (2006). Body dissatisfaction prospectively predicts depressive symptoms and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 539–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prezza, M., Trombaccia, F. R., & Armento, L. (1997). La scala dell′autostima di Rosenberg: traduzione e validazione italiana [The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale: Italian translation and validation]. Bollettino di Psicologia Applicata, 223, 35–44.Google Scholar
  26. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Ruini, C., Ottolini, F., Ravanelli, C., Ryff, C., & Fava, G. A. (2003). La validazione italiana delle Psychological Well-being Scales (PWB). [Italian validation of Psychological Well-being Scales (PWB)]. Rivista di Psichiatria, 38, 117–130.Google Scholar
  28. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sawatzky, R., Ratner, P. A., Johnson, J. L., Kopec, J. A., & Zumbo, B. D. (2009). Sample heterogeneity and the measurement structure of the multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Social Indicators Research, 94, 273–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful life events on psychopathological behaviour in adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carla Zappulla
    • 1
  • Ugo Pace
    • 2
    Email author
  • Valentina Lo Cascio
    • 3
  • Giovanni Guzzo
    • 2
  • E. Scott Huebner
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Human and Social ScienceUniversity Kore of EnnaEnnaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Economics, Business and FinanceUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations