Social Indicators Research

, Volume 116, Issue 1, pp 67–114 | Cite as

Development Trends in Islamic Societies: From Collective Wishes to Concerted Actions

Article

Abstract

Today, approximately one-fourth of the world’s population includes 1,620 million persons who are part of the expanding Islamic Ummah. Muslims are found in large numbers in all regions of the world but are concentrated in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and selected successor states to the former Soviet Union. Despite the obvious wealth of some Islamic nations most Muslims live under conditions of poverty, joblessness, illiteracy, ill health, social and political unrest and, in some regions, religious extremism. Using the extensively pre-tested Weighted Index of Social Progress, this paper reports a 40-year time series analysis of the nature, extent, and pace of social change that is taking place within 53 of the 57 member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Data are reported at four levels of analysis. Selected data also are reported for both the OIC-as-a-whole and for the world-as-a-whole. The present analysis offers a sometimes bleak, but generally optimistic, picture of the dramatic differences that characterize development patterns within Islamic countries, subregions, and regions. Particular attention is given to: (a) the legacy of colonialism that persisted for some OIC states until as recently as 1991; (b) the recurrent social unrest that continues to characterize development in many Islamic states, e.g., the “Arab Spring” (Vision of Humanity 2012); (c) the presence or absence of marketable natural and human resources; and, (d) the significant contributions being made to the development of Islamic countries by the United Nations’ Millennium Development Campaign (United Nations 2005) and the OIC’s Ten-Year Programme of Action (OIC 2005). However, the important social gains reported in this paper for some countries and geographic regions remain highly variable, potentially reversible, unless the collective wishes of Islamic nations are translated into concerted actions both within OIC member states and the larger world community of nations.

Keywords

Social development Economic development Political development Sustainable development Social indicators Index of Social Progress Islamic states The Ummah Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) 

References

  1. African Development Bank (ADB). (2012). African economic outlook, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012 from http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/.
  2. African Development Bank (ADB). (2013). Data and statistics. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from http://www.africaneconomicoutlook.org/en/data-statistics/.
  3. Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa. (2011). Annual report, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2012 from: http://www.badea.org/annual-report.htm.
  4. Arkoun, M. (1994). Rethinking Islam: Common questions, uncommon answers, today. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Asian Development Bank. (2012). Asian development outlook, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.adb.org/publications/series/asian-development-outlook.
  6. Asian Development Bank. (2013). Data and research. Retrieved January 13, 2013 from http://www.adb.org/data/main.
  7. Amnesty International. (2013). Year of rebellion: Human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved January 4, 2013 from http://amnestymena.posterous.com/.
  8. Bennabi, M. (2005). La vocation de l’Islam. Alger: ANEP.Google Scholar
  9. Central Intelligence Agency. (2013). World factbook, 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/.
  10. Clarion Fund. (2006) Obsession: Radical Islam’s war against the West (DVD). Retrieved January 2, 2013 from http://www.obsessionthemovie.com/.
  11. Chomsky, N. (2012). Making the future: Occupations, interventions, empire and resistance. San Francisco: City Lights Books.Google Scholar
  12. Collier, P. (2007). The bottom one billion: Why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Drine, I. (2012). Youth unemployment in the Arab world: What do we know? What is the way forward? Retrieved January 22, 2013 from http://www.wider.unu.edu/publications/newsletter/articles-2012/en_GB/06-07-2012-Drine/.
  14. Easterlin, R. A. (2010). Happiness, growth, and the life cycle. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ellingsen, T. (2000). Colorful community or ethnic witches’ brew? Multi-ethnicity and domestic conflict during and after the cold war. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44, 228–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Encyclopedia Britannica. (2013). Dark ages. Retrieved January 20, 2013 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/151663/Dark-Ages.
  17. Esposito, J. L. (1998). Islam: The straight path. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Estes, R. J. (1984). The social progress of nations. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  19. Estes, R. J. (1988). Trends in world social development. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  20. Estes, R. J. (1995). Social development trends in Africa: The need for a new development paradigm. Social Development Issues, 17(1), 18–47.Google Scholar
  21. Estes, R. J. (1996a). Social development trends in Latin America, 1970–1994: In the shadows of the 21st century. Social Development Issues, 18(1), 25–52.Google Scholar
  22. Estes, R. J. (1996b). Social development trends in Asia, 1970–1994: The challenges of a new century,”. Social Indicators Research, 37(2), 119–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Estes, R. J. (1998a). Social development trends in the successor states to the former Soviet Union: The search for a new paradigm. In K. R. Hope Jr. (Ed.), Challenges of transformation and transition from centrally planned to market economies (pp. 13–33). Nagoya: United Nations Centre for Regional Development.Google Scholar
  24. Estes, R. J. (1998b). Trends in world social development, 1970–95: Development prospects for a new century. Journal of Developing Societies, 14(1), 11–39.Google Scholar
  25. Estes, R. J. (2004). Development challenges of the New Europe. Social Indicators Research, 69, 123–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Estes, R. J. (2007a). Asia and the new century: Challenges and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 82(3), 375–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Estes, R. J. (2007b). Development challenges and opportunities confronting economies in transition. Social Indicators Research, 83, 375–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Estes, R. J. (2010). The world social situation: Development challenges at the outset of a new century. Social Indicators Research, 98(3), 363–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Estes, R. J. (2012a). “Failed” and “failing” states: Is quality of life possible? In K. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. Joseph Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of quality of life research (pp. 555–580). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Estes, R. J. (2012b). Economies in transition: Continuing challenges to quality of life. In K. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. Joseph Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of quality of life research (pp. 433–457). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Estes, R. J. (2013a). Development trends among the world’s socially least developed countries: Reasons for cautious optimism. In B. Spooner (Ed.). Globalization in progress: Understanding and working with world urbanization. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (in preparation).Google Scholar
  32. Estes, R. J. (2013b). The world social situation: Development challenges at the outset of a new century. In W. Glatzer (Ed.). The global handbook of well-being: From the wealth of nations to the well-being of nations. Dordrecht: Springer (in preparation).Google Scholar
  33. European Union. (2013). Development aid and cooperation. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://europa.eu/pol/dev/index_en.htm.
  34. Freedom House. (2012). Freedom in the world, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from http://www.freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world.
  35. Fund for Peace. (2011). “Failed” states index scores. Foreign policy & the fund for peace. Retrieved January 2, 2013 from http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=229&Itemid=366.
  36. Gallup: The American Institute of Public Opinion. (2013). Citizens of poorest countries are happiest in the world. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://english.pravda.ru/society/stories/02-01-2013/123363-poor_happy-0/.
  37. Glennie, J. (2008). The trouble with aid: Why less could mean more for Africa. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  38. Goffé, G. (2011). The Arab spring in North Africa: Origins and prospects. Journal of North African Studies, 16(4), 507–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagerty, M., Vogel, J., & Moeller, V. (2002). Assessing quality of life and living conditions to guide national policy: The state of the art. Special issue of Social Indicators Research, 58, 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. History Learning Site. (2013). The Sykes–Picot Agreement of 1916. Retrieved January 26, 2013 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/sykes_picot_agreement.htm.
  41. Hunke, S. (2000). Le soleil d’Allah brille sur l’occident. Paris: Albin Michel.Google Scholar
  42. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2012a). Yearbook of labour statistics, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/magazines-andjournals/periodicals/subscriptions/WCMS_175105/lang--en/index.htm.
  43. International Labour Organization (ILO). (2012b). The hidden face of youth unemployment. Retrieved January 24, 2013 from http://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/global-employment-trends/youth/2012/WCMS_181063/lang–en/index.htm.Google Scholar
  44. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2012a). The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative. Retrieved January 10, 2013 from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTDEBTDEPT/0,contentMDK:20260411~menuPK:64166739~pagePK:64166689~piPK:64166646~theSitePK:469043,00.html.
  45. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2012b). Caucasus, Central Asia see solid growth, but risks remain. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2012/car042012b.htm.
  46. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2013). Debt relief under the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative: Factsheet. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/hipc.htm.
  47. International Organization for Migration. (2010). World migration report 2010: The future of migrationBuilding capacities for change. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/Newsrelease/docs/WM2010_FINAL_23_11_2010.pdf.
  48. Leonard, D., & Straus, S. (2003). Africa’s stalled development. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  49. Lewis, B. (1993). Islam and the west. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Moore, J. (2013). The evolution of Islamic terrorism, Frontline. Retrieved January 20, 2013 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/target/etc/modern.html.
  51. Moyo, D. (2009). Dead aid: Why aid is not working and how there is a better way for Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.Google Scholar
  52. Nasr, S. V. R. (2013). European colonialism and the emergence of modern Muslim states. In J. L. Esposito (Ed.) The Oxford history of Islam: Oxford Islamic studies online. Retrieved January 18, 2013 from http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/book/islam-9780195107999/islam-9780195107999.
  53. Nove, A. (1979). Socialism and development: Some observations on the Soviet Contribution. Development and Change, 10(4), 553–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2012). Aid statistics. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.oecd.org/dac/aidstatistics/.
  55. Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). (2005). Ten point programme of action: To meet the challenges facing the Muslim Ummah In the 21st century. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=228.
  56. Population Reference Bureau (PRB). (2012). World population data sheet, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.prb.org/pdf12/2012-population-data-sheet_eng.pdf.
  57. Rodinson, M. (1980). La fascination de l’Islam, Paris, Maspero («Petite collection»).Google Scholar
  58. Sachs, J. D. (2005). The end of poverty. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  59. Sachs, J. D. (2008). Commonwealth: Economics for a crowded planet. New York: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
  60. Sen, A. (2009). The idea of justice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Shalabi, A. (1996). Tarekhalaslam (Islamic history and Islamic civilization) (14th ed.). Beirut: Dar Jil and Cairo: Dar En-Nahda. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://ebookbrowse.com/islamic-history-and-islamic-civilization-dr-ahmed-shalaby-pdf-d48137585).
  62. Tiliouine, H. (2013). Islamic education and youth well-being in Muslim countries, with a specific reference to Algeria. In Ben-Arieh, A., Frones, I., Casas, F., & Korbin, J. E. (Eds.). Handbook of child well-being: Theory, indicators, measures and policies. Dordrecht: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-9063-8_181.
  63. Tiliouine, H., Cummins, R. A., & Davern, M. (2006). Measuring wellbeing in developing countries: The case of Algeria. Social Indicators Research, 75, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tiliouine, H., & Meziane, M. (2012). The quality of life of Muslim populations: The case of Algeria. In K. Land, A. C. Michalos, & M. Joseph Sirgy (Eds.), Handbook of quality of life research (pp. 499–528). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Transparency International. (2012). Global corruption index, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.transparency.org/whatwedo/pub/corruption_perceptions_index_2012.
  66. United Nations (UN). (2012a). The millennium development goals report, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/mdg-report-2012.html.
  67. United Nations (UN). (2012b). Millennium development goals: 2012 progress chart. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/2012_Progress_E.pdf.
  68. United Nations Children’s Fund. (2012). The state of the world’s children, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.unicef.org/sowc2012/.
  69. United Nations Development Programme. (2011). Sustainability and equity: A better future for all. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  70. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2002). Arab human development report, 2002: Creating opportunities for future generations. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regional/arabstates/name,3140,en.html.
  71. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2003). Arab human development report, 2003: Building a knowledge society. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regional/arabstates/name,3204,en.html.
  72. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2004). Arab human development report, 2004: Toward freedom in the Arab world. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regional/arabstates/name,3278,en.html.
  73. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2005). Arab human development report, 2005: Empowerment of Arab women. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regional/arabstates/name,3403,en.html.
  74. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2009a). Arab human development report, 2009: Challenges to human security in Arab societies. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/regional/arabstates/name,3442,en.html.
  75. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2009b). Human development report: Overcoming barriers—Human mobility and development. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  76. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2013). Data and analysis (for the European and Central Asian regions). Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://europeandcis.undp.org/data/.
  77. United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. (2013). Statistical yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.cepal.org/cgi-bin/getProd.asp?xml=/publicaciones/xml/4/48864/P48864.xml&xsl=/tpl-i/p9f.xsl&base=/tpl/top-bottom.xsl.
  78. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (2008). Policy issues for the Asian and Pacific region: Achieving the millennium development goals in the ESCAP region. Retrieved January 24, 2013 from http://www.unescap.org/EDC/English/Commissions/E64/E64_37E.pdf.
  79. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (2010). Paths to 2015: MDG priorities in Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.mdgasiapacific.org/files/MDG%20Paths%20to%202015%20Final.pdf.
  80. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. (2012). Statistical yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2012/index.asp.
  81. United Nations Millennium Project. (2005). Investing in development: A practical plan to achieve the millennium development goals. New York: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  82. United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing Countries (UN-OHRLLS). (2009a). The criteria for LDCs. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org/special-rep/ohrlls/ldc/ldc%20criteria.htm.
  83. United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing Countries. (2009b). List of LDCs. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.unohrlls.org/en/ldc/related/62/.
  84. United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing Countries. (2009c). LDC facts and figures. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.unohrlls.org/en/ldc/related/63/.
  85. United Nations Office of the High Representative for Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing Countries. (2009d). Resolutions. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/wssd/index.html.
  86. United States Social Security Administration. (2013). Social security programs throughout the world. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/wssd/index.html.
  87. UN-Women. (2011). Progress of the world’s women: In pursuit of justice. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.unwomen.org/resources/progress-of-the-worlds-women/.
  88. Vision of Humanity. (2012). The global peace index, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi-data/.
  89. Wikipedia. (2013a). Islam by country. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_by_country.
  90. Wikipedia. (2013b). Casualties of the Iraq war. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_Iraq_War.
  91. Wikipedia. (2013c). List of on-going military conflicts. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ongoing_conflicts.
  92. Wikipedia. (2013d). List of wars 2011–present. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wars_2011%E2%80%93present.
  93. Wikipedia. (2013e). Ummah. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ummah.
  94. Wikipedia. (2013f). Caliphate. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caliphate.
  95. Wikipedia. (2013g). Infant mortality. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infant_mortality.
  96. Wikipedia. (2013h). List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_percentage_of_population_living_in_poverty.
  97. Wikipedia. (2013i). List of national independence days. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Independence_Day.
  98. Wikipedia. (2013j). Women in government. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_national_parliament.
  99. Wikipedia. (2013k). Science in the Middle Ages: Islamic interactions. Retrieved January 23, 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_in_the_Middle_Ages#Islamic_interactions.
  100. World Bank. (2010). The enhanced heavily indebted poor countries initiative. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTDEBTDEPT/Resources/468980-1256580106544/HIPCFall2010_ENG.pdf.
  101. World Bank. (2013). World development report, 2013: Jobs. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTNWDR2013/Resources/8258024-1320950747192/8260293-1322665883147/WDR_2013_Report.pdf.
  102. World Resources Institute (WRI). (2013). Data sets. Retrieved January 3, 2013 from http://www.wri.org/publications/data-sets.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Policy and PracticeUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Faculty of Social SciencesUniversity of OranOranAlgeria

Personalised recommendations