Social Indicators Research

, Volume 115, Issue 1, pp 467–482 | Cite as

Pictorial Approaches for Measuring Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

  • Yuta J. Masuda
  • Lea Fortmann
  • Mary Kay Gugerty
  • Marla Smith-Nilson
  • Joseph Cook
Article

Abstract

Time use researchers working in least developed countries (LDCs) face difficulties collecting data from illiterate populations who may conceptualize time differently than those in industrialized countries. We identify existing gaps in time use data collection methods and discuss two novel, pictorial methods to collect time use data from these populations. The first method is a modified recall interview modeled on participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods that asks respondents to place macaroni on pictures of activity categories in proportion to the amount of time spent on that activity during the previous day. The second is a simplified pictorial time diary that uses a timer and sequentially-numbered stickers to re-create the temporal order of activities in 30-min increments. The latter method also avoids recall bias problems. We present time use data collected in 2009 using these methods in a study examining the impacts of water infrastructure on women and children’s time use in rural Ethiopia. In total, we collected information using the first method from 263 household members over age 10, including 167 water collectors, and pilot-tested the pictorial diary approach with 10 adult respondents.

Keywords

Time use Least developed countries Previous day recall Time diaries Methodology 

Supplementary material

11205_2012_9995_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 5277 kb)

References

  1. Apps, P. (2002). Gender, time use, and models of the household. Sydney: Faculty of Law, University of Sydney.Google Scholar
  2. Beegle, K., Dehejia, R. H., & Gatti, R. (2006). Child labor and agricultural shocks. Journal of Development Economics, 81(1), 80–96. doi:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2005.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betzig, L. L., & Turke, P. W. (1985). Measuring time allocation—Observation and intention. Current Anthropology, 26(5), 647–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat, C. R., & Koppelman, F. S. (1999). A retrospective and prospective survey of time-use research. Transportation, 26(2), 119–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonke, J. (2005). Paid work and unpaid work: Diary information versus questionnaire information. Social Indicators Research, 70(3), 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cardenas, J. C., & Carpenter, J. P. (2008). Behavioural development economics: Lessons from field labs in the developing world. Journal of Development Studies, 44(3), 311–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chenu, A., & Lesnard, L. (2006). Time use surveys: A review of their aims, methods and results. Archives Europeennes De Sociologie, 47(3), 335–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175(9), 526–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Floro, M. S. (1995). Economic restructuring, gender and the allocation of time. World Development, 23(11), 1913–1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Floro, M. S., & Miles, M. (2003). Time use, work and overlapping activities: Evidence from Australia. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 27(6), 881–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gershuny, J. (2000). Changing times: Work and leisure in postindustrial society. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Grossman, D. R. (1984). Time allocation: A tool for the study of cultural behavior. Annual Review of Anthropology, 13, 519–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hames, R. (2010). Production decisions and time allocation. In V. Ismael, E. A. Smith, & S. Aswani (Eds.), Society and environment: Methods and research design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Haraldsen, G., Vaage, O. F., & Asi, S. (2000). Time use mission reports from Palestine and South Africa. Paper presented at the international association of time use research, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.Google Scholar
  15. Harvey, A. S., & Taylor, M. E. (2000). Time use. In M. Grosh & P. Glewwe (Eds.), Designing household survey questionnaires for developing countries: Lessons from fifteen years of LSMS experience. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  16. Hawes, D. K., Blackwell, R. D., & Talarzyk, W. W. (1974). Consumer satisfactions from leisure time pursuits (Research paper—College of Commerce and Industry, University of Wyoming no. 49). Laramie: College of Commerce and Industry, University of Wyoming.Google Scholar
  17. Hofferth, S. (2000). Family reading to young children: social desirability and biases in reporting. In M. Ver Ploeg, & National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on National Statistics. (Eds.), Time-use measurement and research: report of a workshop (pp. xiv, 113 p.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  18. Jeong, J. G. (2005). Obtaining accurate measures of time use from the ESM. In B. L. Schneider, & L. J. Waite (Eds.), Being together, working apart: Dual-career families and the work-life balance (pp. xxiii, 553 p.). Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Juster, F. T., Stafford, F. P., & University of Michigan. Survey Research Center. (1985). Time, goods, and well-being. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  20. Kahneman, D., Krueger, A. B., Schkade, D. A., Schwarz, N., & Stone, A. A. (2004). A survey method for characterizing daily life experience: The day reconstruction method. Science, 306(5702), 1776–1780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keller, J., Kempter, D., Timmer, S. G., & Young-Demarco, L. (1982). Proceedings of the international time-use workshop. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Institute of Social Research.Google Scholar
  22. Kes, A., & Swaminathan, H. (2006). Gender and time poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. In C. M. Blackden & Q. Wodon (Eds.), Gender, time use, and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  23. Kevane, M., & Wydick, B. (2001). Microenterprise lending to female entrepreneurs: Sacrificing economic growth for poverty alleviation? World Development, 29(7), 1225–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kitterod, R. H. (2001). Does the recording of parallel activities in time use diaries affect the way people report their main activities? Social Indicators Research, 56(2), 145–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klevmarken, N. A. (1982). Household market and non-market activities (Hus): A pilot study. Goteborg, Sweden: University of Goteborg, Department of Statistics.Google Scholar
  26. Larson, R., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). The experience sampling method. In H. T. Reis (Ed.), New directions for methodology of social and behavioral science (Vol. no 15, pp. 116 p (Mar 1983)). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  27. Mcsweeney, B. G., & Freedman, M. (1980). Lack of time as an obstacle to womens education—the case of upper-volta. Comparative Education Review, 24(2), S124–S139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Michelson, W. M. (2005). Time use: Expanding explanation in the social sciences. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Michelson, W. (2009). On adding affect to time-diary accounts. Social Indicators Research, 93(1), 31–32. doi:10.1007/s11205-008-9363-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mueller, E. (1984). The value and allocation of time in rural Botswana. Journal of Development Economics, 15(1–3), 329–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Narayan-Parker, D. (1993a). Participatory evaluation: Tools for managing change in water and sanitation (World Bank technical paper). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  32. Narayan-Parker, D. (1993b). Towards participatory research. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  33. Paolisso, M., & Hame, R. (2010). Time diary versus instantaneous sampling: A comparison of two behavioral research methods. Field Methods, 22(4), 357–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Reynolds, P. (1991). Dance, civet cat: Child labour in the Zambezi Valley. Harare, Zimbabwe Athens: Baobab Books, Ohio University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Robinson, J. P. (1977). How Americans use time: a social-psychological analysis of everyday behavior (Praeger special studies in U.S. economic, social, and political issues). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  36. Robinson, J. P. (1985). The validity and reliability of diaries versus alternative time-use measures (Time, goods, and well-being). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  37. Robinson, J. P., & Godbey, G. (1999). Time for life: The surprising ways Americans use their time (2nd ed.). University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Sayer, L. C. (2005). Gender, time and inequality: Trends in women’s and men’s paid work, unpaid work and free time. Social Forces, 84(1), 285–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shelton, B. A., & Daphne, J. (1996). The division of household labor. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 299–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Szalai, S. (1973). The use of time. Daily activities of urban and suburban populations in twelve countries (Publication of the European Coordination Centre for Research and Documentation in the Social Sciences, v. 5). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  41. United Nations (1978). Progress report on the development of statistics of time-use. Report of the secretary-general to twentieth session of the statistical commission. Google Scholar
  42. United Nations. Statistical Division. (2005). Guide to producing statistics on time use: Measuring paid and unpaid work. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  43. Verbrugge, L., & Gruber-Baldine, D. (1993). Baltimore study of activity patterns. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute of Gerontology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  44. Wiseman, V., Conteh, L., & Matovu, F. (2005). Using diaries to collect data in resource-poor settings: Questions on design and implementation. Health Policy and Planning, 20(6), 394–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wodon, Q., & Beegle, K. (2006). Labor shortages despite underemployment? Seasonality in time use in Malawi (World Bank working paper,). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuta J. Masuda
    • 1
  • Lea Fortmann
    • 2
  • Mary Kay Gugerty
    • 1
  • Marla Smith-Nilson
    • 3
  • Joseph Cook
    • 1
  1. 1.Daniel J. Evans School of Public AffairsUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.The Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Water 1st InternationalSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations