Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 465–478 | Cite as

Subjective Vitality of Lebanese Adults in Lebanon: Validation of the Arabic Version of the Subjective Vitality Scale

  • Yasmine I. FayadEmail author
  • Shahe S. Kazarian
Article

Abstract

Subjective vitality is an indicator of eudaimonic well-being that refers to the feeling of being alive and full of energy. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), awareness of what is truly occurring in the present is conducive to subjective vitality. The current study examined the construct validity of the Subjective Vitality Scale and its relation to sociodemographic variables and Experiential Self-Knowledge (ESK), a theoretically relevant awareness construct, in the Lebanese cultural context. A convenient sample of 301 Lebanese adults residing in the Greater Beirut Area completed the Arabic translations of the 6-item Subjective Vitality Scale (SVS) and the 13-item ESK Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional factor structure for the Arabic SVS. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses also provided evidence of configural, metric, structural, and scalar invariance across sex. With respect to sociodemographic variables, sex was the only significant correlate and predictor of subjective vitality, with males reporting greater levels of subjective vitality than females. Consistent with Self-Determination Theory (SDT), awareness as assessed by the ESK Scale was found to be a positive correlate and predictor of subjective vitality such that those who scored higher on experiential self-knowledge also reported greater levels of subjective vitality. These findings provide preliminary support for the construct validity of the Arabic translation of the SVS in the Lebanese context and highlight the potential role of awareness in eudaimonic well-being.

Keywords

Subjective vitality Experiential self-knowledge Lebanon Arab Self-determination theory Validation 

References

  1. Abu-Baker, K. (2005). The impact of social values on the psychology of gender among Arab Couples: A view from psychotherapy. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 42(2), 106–115.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Musa, A. A., Nassar, A. H., Hannoun, A. B., & Usta, I. M. (2007). Effect of the Lebanese civil war on sperm parameters. Fertility and Sterility, 88, 1579–1582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abu-Saba, M. B. (1999). War-related trauma and stress characteristics of American University of Beirut students. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ayyash-Abdo, H. (2010). Subjective well-being during political violence and uncertainty: A study of college youth in Lebanon. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 2, 340–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayyoub, C., Uthman, I., & Najjar, M. (1986). The physical health of children. In J. W. Bryce & H. K. Armenian (Eds.), In wartime: The state of children in Lebanon. Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut.Google Scholar
  6. Bostic, T. J., Rubio, D. M., & Hood, M. (2000). A validation of the subjective vitality scale using structural equation modeling. Social Indicators Research, 52, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brdar, I., & Kashdan, T. B. (2010). Character strengths and well-being in Croatia: An empirical investigation of structure and correlates. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 151–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural models (pp. xx–xx). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Bryce, J. W., & Armenian, H. (1986). In war time: The state of children in Lebanon. New York, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bryce, J. W., Walker, N., Ghorayeb, F., & Kanj, M. (1989). Life experiences, response styles and mental health among mothers and children in Beirut, Lebanon. Society, Science and Medicine, 28, 685–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural equation modeling using AMOS: Basic concepts, applications and programming. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). The world Factbook. Retrieved 27 Sept, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/le.html.
  14. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Deeb, M. E. (1997). Beirut: A health profile. Beirut Lebanon: American University of Beirut.Google Scholar
  16. Douki, S., Zineb, S. B., Nacef, F., & Halbreich, U. (2007). Women’s mental health in the Muslim world: Cultural, religious, and social issues. Journal of Affective Disorders, 102, 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dwairy, M. (2006). Counseling and psychotherapy with Arabs and Muslims. New York: Teachers College.Google Scholar
  18. Farhood, L., Zurayk, H., Chaya, M., Saadeh, F., Meshefedjian, G., & Sidani, T. (1993). The impact of war on the physical and mental health of the family: The Lebanese experience. Society, Science and Medicine, 36, 1555–1567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS (5th ed.). London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Ghorbani, N., Watson, P. J., Bing, M. N., Davison, H. K., & LeBreton, D. (2003). Two facets of self-knowledge: Cross-cultural development measure in Iran and the United States. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 129, 238–268.Google Scholar
  21. Hammoud, M. A., Haddad, F. S., & Moufarrij, N. A. (1995). Spinal cord missile injuries during the Lebanese civil war. Surgical Neurology, 43, 432–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Harb, C., & Smith, P. B. (2008). Self-construals across cultures: Beyond independence–interdependence. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 178–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes for covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Huta, V., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 735–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Karam, E. G., Mneinmneh, Z. N., Dimassi, H., Fayyad, J. A., Karam, A. N., Nasser, S. C., et al. (2008). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Lebanon: First onset, treatment and exposure to war. PLoS Medicine, 5(4), e61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kasser, V. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The relation of psychological needs of autonomy and relatedness to vitality, well-being, and mortality in a nursing home. Journal of Applied Psychology, 29, 935–954.Google Scholar
  27. Kazarian, S. S. (2005). Family functioning, cultural orientation, and psychological well-being among university students in Lebanon. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kazarian, S., & Martin, R. A. (2004). Humor styles, personality, and well-being among Lebanese university students. European Journal of Personality, 18, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kazarian, S., & Martin, R. A. (2006). Humor styles, culture-related personality, well-being, and family adjustment among Armenians in Lebanon. HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research, 19, 405–423.Google Scholar
  30. Kins, E., Beyers, W., Soenens, B., & Vansteekiste, M. (2009). Patterns of home leaving and subjective well-being in emerging adulthood: The role of motivational processes and parental autonomy support. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1416–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kobeissi, L., Inhorn, M. C., Hannoun, A. B., Hammoud, N., Awwad, J., & Abu-Musa, A. A. (2008). Civil war and male infertility in Lebanon. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 340–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lynch, M. (2010). Basis needs and well-being: A self-determination theory view. Retrieved 3 May, 2012 from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas10/Article_70.pdf.
  34. Lynch, M. F., La Guardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). On being yourself in different cultures: Ideal and actual self-concept, autonomy support, and well-being in China, Russia, and the United States. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 290–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Macksoud, M. S., & Aber, J. L. (1996). The war experience and psychosocial development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67, 70–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moghnie, L., & Kazarian, S. S. (2011). Subjective happiness of Lebaese college youth in Lebanon: Factorial structure and invariance of the Subjective Happiness Scale. Social Indicators Research,. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9895-5.Google Scholar
  37. Niemiec, C. P., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Bernstein, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 761–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nix, G. A., Ryan, R. M., Manly, J. B., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Revitalization through self-regulation: The effects of autonomous and controlled motivation on happiness and vitality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 266–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oweini, A. (1998). How students coped with the war: The experience of Lebanon. The Journal of Higher Education, 69, 406–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ryan, R. M., & Frederick, C. M. (1997). On energy, personality and health: Subjective vitality as a dynamic reflection of well-being. Journal of Personality, 65, 529–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Delci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 139–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryan, R. M., Weisntein, N., Bernstein, J., Brown, K. W., Mistetta, L., & Gagne, M. (2010). Vitalizing effects of being outdoors in nature. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 159–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sabbah, I., Drouby, N., Sabbah, S., Retel-Rude, N., & Mercier, M. (2003). Quality of life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 30–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salama-Younes, M. (2011a). Validation of the mental health continuum short form and Subjective Vitality Scale with Egyptian adolescent athletes. In I. Brdar (Ed.), The human pursuit of well-being: A cultural approach (pp. 221–234). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Salama-Younes, M. (2011b). Positive mental health, subjective vitality and satisfaction with life for French physical education students. World Journal of Sport Sciences, 4, 90–97.Google Scholar
  47. Salama-Younes, M., Montazeri, A., Ismaïl, A., & Roncin, C. (2009). Structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS), and the relationship between them: A study from France. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sibai, A. M., Armenian, H. K., & Alam, S. (1989). Wartime determinants of arteriographically confirmed coronary artery disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 130, 623–631.Google Scholar
  49. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  50. Taylor, I. M., & Lonsdale, C. (2010). Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, 655–673.Google Scholar
  51. Tremblay, M. A., Blanchard, C. M., Vallerand, L. G., & Pelletier, R. J. (2006). A dual role in explaining health outcomes in natural disasters. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1502–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. UNDP. (2006). Arab Human Development Report 2005: Towards the rise of women in the Arab World. United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  53. UNDP. (2009). Arab Human Development Report: Challenges to Human Security in the Arab Countries. United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
  54. Usta, J., Farver, J. M., & Pashayan, N. (2007). Domestic violence: The Lebanese experience. Public Health, 121, 208–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vlachopoulos, S. P., & Karavani, E. (2009). Psychological needs and subjective vitality in exercise: A cross-gender situational test of the needs universality hypothesis. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 6, 207–222.Google Scholar
  56. Zahr, L. K. (1996). Effects of war on the behavior of Lebanese preschool children: Influence of home environment and family functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zurayk, H., & Armenian, H. K. (1985). Beirut 1984: A population and health profile. Beirut, Lebanon: American University of Beirut.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of psychiatryAmerican University of Beirut Medical CenterBeirutLebanon

Personalised recommendations