Social Indicators Research

, Volume 113, Issue 3, pp 1261–1287

The Disadvantaged Among the Dutch: A Survey Approach to the Multidimensional Measurement of Social Exclusion

Article

Abstract

While combating social exclusion has been a key target of the European Union’s social policy in recent years, the concept remains contested and various ways of measuring its prevalence have been proposed. In the Netherlands a survey-based method has been in use since 2004, which refers to four theoretical elements of social exclusion: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to basic social rights and a lack of normative integration. In this article we propose an improved and more concise version of the instrument. Using focus groups and cognitive tests, the study first examined whether it adequately covers the different elements of social exclusion. Based on the results, the existing items were reformulated and supplemented. A revised questionnaire was then submitted to a new stratified sample of 650 respondents, randomly drawn from an online panel and a database of people without access to the Internet. The weighted outcomes may be regarded as representative for the entire adult Dutch population, although some caveats apply. Using nonlinear canonical correlation analysis, we identified a single underlying dimension in our new data set. This contains 15 items, with three to four indicators for each of the theoretical elements of social exclusion. According to our general index, just under 5 % of the Dutch population aged 18 years or older are faced with a serious degree of social exclusion. On the four subscales the figure ranges from 7 % (social rights) to 22 % (material deprivation).

Keywords

Social exclusion Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis Social participation Normative integration Material deprivation Social rights 

References

  1. Arts, W. A., & Gelissen, J. (2010). Models of the welfare state. In F. G. Castles, S. Leibfried, J. Lewis, H. Obinger, & C. Pierson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the welfare state (pp. 569–583). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, T., Cantillon, B., Marlier, E., & Nolan, B. (2002). Social indicators; The EU and social inclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bayram, N., Bilgel, F., & Bilgel, N. G. (2012). Social exclusion and quality of life: An empirical study from Turkey. Social Indicators Research, 105(1), 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boelhouwer, J. (2010). Wellbeing in the Netherlands: The SCP life situation index since 1974. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  5. Bovens, M., & Wille, A. (2010). The education gap in political participation and its political consequences. Acta Politica, 45(4), 393–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bovens, M., & Wille, A. (2012). The education gap in participation: A rejoinder. Acta Politica, 47(3), 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bradshaw, J. (Ed.). (1993). Budget standards for the United Kingdom. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
  8. Bradshaw, J., & Mayhew, E. (2011). The measurement of extreme poverty in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  9. Bradshaw, J., Middleton, S., Davis, A., Oldfield, N., Smith, N., Cusworth, L., et al. (2008). A minimum income standard for Britain: What people think. York/Loughborough: Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Loughborough University.Google Scholar
  10. Burchard, T. (2000). Social exclusion: Concepts and evidence. In D. Gordon & P. Townsend (Eds.), Breadline Europe: The measurement of poverty (pp. 385–406). Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  11. Castles, F. G., & Obinger, H. (2008). Worlds, families, regimes: Country clusters in European and OECD area public policy. West European Politics, 31(1–2), 321–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CBS/SCP (2011). Armoedesignalement 2011 [Poverty Survey 2011]. The Hague: Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.Google Scholar
  13. Council of Europe (1998). Recommendation 1355: On fighting social exclusion and strengthening social cohesion in Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  14. Devicienti, F., & Poggi, A. (2011). Poverty and social exclusion: Two sides of the same coin or dynamically interrelated processes? Applied Economics, 43(25), 3549–3571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Durkheim, E. (1897). Le suicide: Étude de sociologie. Paris: Félix Alcan.Google Scholar
  16. Durkheim, E. (1901). Les règles de la méthode sociologique. Paris: Félix Alcan.Google Scholar
  17. EC (2006). Portfolio of overarching indicators and streamlined social inclusion, pensions and health portfolios. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  18. EC (2011a). Europe 2020 targets (as set by member states in their national reform programmes in April 2011). Brussels: European Commission (downloaded from http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/targets_en.pdf).
  19. EC (2011b). Employment and social developments in Europe 2011. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  20. EC (2011c). People at risk of poverty and social exclusion. Brussels: European Commission (downloaded from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu).
  21. Elias, N., & Scotson, J. L. (1965). The established and the outsiders: A sociological enquiry into community problems. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  22. Esping-Andersen, G. (1999). Social foundations of postindustrial economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fahey, T. (2010). Poverty and the two concepts of relative deprivation. Dublin: University College.Google Scholar
  24. Ferragina, E., & Seeleib-Kaiser, M. (2011). Welfare regime debate: Past, present, futures? Policy and Politics, 39(4), 583–611.Google Scholar
  25. Garson, G. D. (2008). Canonical correlation. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University (downloaded from http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/PA765/canonic.htm).
  26. Gifi, A. (1990). Nonlinear multivariate analysis. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  27. Grosse Frie, K., & Janssen, Ch. (2009). Social inequality, lifestyles and health: A non-linear canonical correlation analysis based on the approach of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of Public Health, 54(4), 213–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guiaux, M. (2011). Voorbestemd tot achterstand? Armoede en sociale uitsluiting in de kindertijd en 25 jaar later [Destined for disadvantage? Poverty and social exclusion during childhood and 25 years later]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  29. Hakhverdian, A., van der Brug, W., & de Vries, C. (2012). The emergence of a ‘diploma democracy’? The political education gap in the Netherlands, 1971–2010. Acta Politica, 47(3), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hentschel, U., van Praag, Th., & Kießling, M. (2011). Defense mechanisms and respiratory parameters. Psychology, 2(4), 331–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hills, J., LeGrand, J., & Piachaud, D. (Eds.). (2002). Understanding social exclusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hoff, S., van Gaalen, C., Soede, A., Luten, A., Vrooman, C., & Lamers, S. (2010). The minimum agreed upon: Consensual budget standards for the Netherlands. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  33. Hoff, S., & Vrooman, C. (2011). Dimensies van sociale uitsluiting: Naar een verbeterd meetinstrument [Dimensions of social exclusion: Towards an improved measurement instrument]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  34. Jehoel-Gijsbers, G. (2004). Sociale uitsluiting in Nederland [Social exclusion in the Netherlands]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  35. Jehoel-Gijsbers, G., Smits, W., Boelhouwer, J., & Bierings, H. (2009). Sociale uitsluiting: Een meetinstrument [Social exclusion: A measuring instrument]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  36. Jehoel-Gijsbers, G. & Vrooman, C. (2007). Explaining social exclusion: A theoretical model tested in the Netherlands. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  37. Jehoel-Gijsbers, G., & Vrooman, C. (2008a). Sociale uitsluiting in Nederland en Europa [Social exclusion in the Netherlands and in Europe]. In P. Schnabel, R. Bijl, & J. de Hart (Eds.), Betrekkelijke betrokkenheid. Studies in sociale cohesie. Sociaal en Cultureel Rapport 2008 (pp. 237–258). The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  38. Jehoel-Gijsbers, G., & Vrooman, C. (2008b). Social exclusion of the elderly: A comparative study of EU member states. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.Google Scholar
  39. Johnson, R. A., & Wichern, D. W. (2007). Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  40. Leibfried, S., & Mau, S. (Eds.). (2008). Welfare states: Construction, deconstruction, reconstruction. Analytical approaches. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  41. Levitas, R. (2006). The concept and measurement of social exclusion. In C. Pantazis, D. Gordon, & R. Levitas (Eds.), Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: The millennium survey (pp. 123–160). Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  42. Levy, J. D. (2010). Welfare retrenchment. In F. G., Castles, S., Leibfried, J., Lewis, H., Obinger, & C. Pierson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the welfare state (pp. 552–565). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lewis, O. (1969). Cultures of poverty. In P. Moynihan (Ed.), On understanding poverty: Perspectives from the social sciences. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  44. Merton, R. K. (with Rossi, A. S.) (1968). Contributions to the theory of reference group behavior. In R. K. Merton, Social theory and social structure, 1968 enlarged edition (pp. 279–334). New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  45. Meulman, J. J., & Heiser, W. J. (2010). SPSS Categories 19. Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  46. Nolan, B. & Whelan, C. T. (2011). The EU 2020 poverty target. Amsterdam: AIAS, GINI Discussion Paper 19.Google Scholar
  47. Øyen, E. (1997). The contradictory concepts of social exclusion and social inclusion. In C. Gore & J. B. Figueiredo (Eds.), Social exclusion and anti-poverty policy. Geneva: International Institute of Labour Studies.Google Scholar
  48. Pantazis, C., Gordon, D., & Levitas, R. (Eds.). (2006). Poverty and social exclusion in Britain: The millennium survey. Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  49. Parker, R. E. (1928). Human migration and the marginal man. American Journal of Sociology, 33(6), 881–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Paugam, S. (1996). La constitution d’un paradigme. In S. Paugam (Ed.), L’exclusion, l’état des savoirs. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  51. Pierson, P. (1996). The new politics of the welfare state. World Politics, 48(2), 143–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poggi, A. (2007). Does persistence of social exclusion exist in Spain? Journal of Economic Inequality, 5(1), 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roest, A. (2011). Kunnen meer kinderen meedoen? Veranderingen in de maatschappelijke participatie van kinderen, 2008–2010 [Are more children taking part? Changes in the social participation of Dutch children, 2008–2010]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  54. Roest, A., Lokhorst, A. M., & Vrooman, C. (2010). Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen: omvang en achtergronden. [The social exclusion of children: Prevalence and underlying causes]. The Hague: Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.Google Scholar
  55. Room, G. (1992). National policies to combat social exclusion. Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  56. Room, G. (1997). Social quality in Europe: Perspectives on social exclusion. In W. Beck, L. van der Maesen, & A. Walker (Eds.), The social quality of Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  57. Runciman, W. G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  58. Saraceno, C. (2001). Social exclusion: Cultural roots and diversities of a popular concept. Columbia: Columbia University.Google Scholar
  59. SCP (2012). The social state of the Netherlands 2011—Summary. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  60. Sen, A. (1992). Inequality re-examined. Cambridge, MA: Sage.Google Scholar
  61. Sen, A. (1993). Capability and well-being. In M. Nussbaum & A. Sen (Eds.), The quality of life (pp. 30–53). Oxford: Clarendon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sen, A. (2000). Social exclusion: Concept explanation and scrutiny. Manila: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  63. Silver, H. (1994). Social exclusion and social solidarity: Three paradigms. International Labour Review, 133(5–6), 531–578.Google Scholar
  64. Soede, A., & Vrooman, C. (2008). Beyond the breadline: A poverty threshold based on a generalised budget approach. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  65. Stouffer, S. (1949). Studies in social psychology in World War II: The American soldier. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Townsend, P. (1979). Poverty in the United Kingdom: A survey of household resources and standards of living. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  67. Tsakloglou, P., & Papadopoulos, F. (2002). Aggregate level and determining factors of social exclusion in twelve European countries. Journal of European Social Policy, 12(3), 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. van der Burg, E., de Leeuw, J., & Dijksterhuis, G. (1994). Overals: Nonlinear canonical correlation with k sets of variables. Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 18(1), 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van Wijk, A. Ph., Blokland, A. A. J., Duits, N., Vermeiren, R., & Harkink, J. (2007). Relating psychiatric disorders, offender and offence characteristics in a sample of adolescent sex offenders and non-sex offenders. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 17(1), 15–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vrooman, J. C. (2009). Rules of relief; Institutions of social security, and their impact. The Hague: The Netherlands Institute for Social Research|SCP.Google Scholar
  71. Walker, R. (1987). Consensual approaches to the definition of poverty: Towards an alternative methodology. Journal of Social Policy, 16(2), 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Whelan, C. T., Layte, R., & Maître, B. (2004). Understanding the mismatch between income poverty and deprivation: A dynamic comparative analysis. European Sociological Review, 20(4), 287–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  74. World Conference on Human Rights (1993). Vienna declaration and programme of action. Vienna: World Conference on Human Rights.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCPThe HagueThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations