Social Indicators Research

, Volume 112, Issue 3, pp 497–527 | Cite as

Theory and Validity of Life Satisfaction Scales

Article

Abstract

National accounts of subjective well-being are being considered and adopted by nations. In order to be useful for policy deliberations, the measures of life satisfaction must be psychometrically sound. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of life satisfaction measures are reviewed. The scales are stable under unchanging conditions, but are sensitive to changes in circumstances in people’s lives. Several types of data indicate that the scales validly reflect the quality of respondents’ lives: (1) Differences between nations in life satisfaction associated with differences in objective conditions, (2) Differences between groups who live in different circumstances, (3) Correlations with nonself-report measures of life satisfaction, (4) Genetic and physiological associations with life satisfaction, (5) Systematic patterns of change in the scales before, during, and after significant life events, and (6) Prediction by life satisfaction scores of future behaviors such as suicide. The life satisfaction scales can be influenced by factors such as question order, current mood, and mode of presentation, but in most cases these can be controlled. Our model of life satisfaction judgments points to the importance of attention, values, standards, and top-down effects. Although the scales are useful in research on individual well-being, there are policy questions that need more analysis and research, such as which types of subjective well-being measures are most relevant to which types of policies, how standards influence scores, and how best to associate the scores with current policy deliberations.

Keywords

Life satisfaction Reliability Validity Global evaluations Quality of life Measurement National policy 

References

  1. Agrawal, S., & Harter, J. K. (2011). Context effects on life evaluation items: Forming new estimates for data prior to January 6, 2009. Washington, DC: Gallup Technical Report.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, T. (1982). The stability and validity of quality of life measures. Social Indicators Research, 10, 113–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, L. M., Wilson, F. L., & Winebarger, A. (2004). An exploratory study of the health problems, stigmatization, life satisfaction, and literacy skills of urban, street-level sex workers. Women and Health, 39, 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becchetti, L., Castriota, S., & Giachin, E. (2011). Beyond the joneses: Inter-country income comparisons and happiness. Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, Working Paper 189.Google Scholar
  5. Biswas-Diener, R., & Diener, E. (2006). The subjective well-being of the homeless, and lessons for happiness. Social Indicators Research, 76, 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanchflower, D. G., & Oswald, A. J. (2012). Antidepressants and age in 27 European countries: Evidence of a U-shape in human well-being through life. Unpublished paper, Dartmouth College.Google Scholar
  7. Brief, A. P., Butcher, A. H., George, J. M., & Link, K. E. (1993). Integrating bottom-up and top-down theories of subjective well-being: The case of health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 646–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, R. A., Marosszeky, J. E., Crooks, J., Baguley, I. J., & Gurka, J. A. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosocial functioning after severe traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 189, 109–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affectivity in middle-aged adults: A test of a cognitive-affective model of psychological adjustment. Psychology and Aging, 16, 524–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clark, A. E., Diener, E., Georgellis, Y., & Lucas, R. E. (2008). Lags and leads in life satisfaction: A test of the baseline hypothesis. The Economic Journal, 118, F222–F243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deaton, A. (2011). The financial crisis and the well-being of America. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University.Google Scholar
  12. DeNeve, J. E. (2011). Functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with subjective well-being: Evidence from a US nationally representative sample. Journal of Human Genetics, 56, 456–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Denissen, J. J. A., Butalid, L., Penke, L., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2008). The effects of weather on daily mood: A multilevel approach. Emotion, 8, 662–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dermer, M., Cohen, S. J., Jacobsen, E., & Anderson, E. A. (1979). Evaluative judgments of aspects of life as a function of vicarious exposure to hedonic extremes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Di Tella, R., Haisken-De New, J., & MacCulloch, R. (2005). Happiness adaptation to income and to status in an individual panel. NBER working paper no. 13159.Google Scholar
  16. Diener, E. (2009). Culture and well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diener, E., & Chan, M. Y. (2011). Happy people live longer: Subjective well-being contributes to health and longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Diener, E., Diener, M., & Diener, C. (1995). Factors predicting the subjective well-being of nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 851–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985a). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Diener, E., Horwitz, J., & Emmons, R. A. (1985b). Happiness of the very wealthy. Social Indicators Research, 16, 263–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diener, E., Kahneman, D., Tov, W., & Arora, R. (2010a). Income’s association with judgments of life versus feelings. In E. Diener, J. Helliwell, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), International differences in well-being (pp. 3–15). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Diener, E., & Larsen, R. J. (1984). Temporal stability and cross-situational consistency of affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 871–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., Oishi, S., & Eunkook, S. M. (2002). Looking up and down: Weighting good and bad information in life satisfaction judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 437–445.Google Scholar
  25. Diener, E., Lucas, R., Schimmack, U., & Helliwell, J. (2009). Well-being for public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Diener, E., Ng, W., Harter, J., & Arora, R. (2010b). Wealth and happiness across the world: Material prosperity predicts life evaluation, while psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 143–156.Google Scholar
  27. Diener, E., Scollon, C. K., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., & Suh, E. M. (2000). Positivity and the construction of life satisfaction judgments: Global happiness is not the sum of its parts. Journal of Happiness Studies: An Interdisciplinary Periodical on Subjective Well-Being, 1, 159–176.Google Scholar
  28. Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. G. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1278–1290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diener, E., Tay, L., & Oishi, S. (2012). Easterlin was wrong and right: Income and psychosocial changes, and the changing happiness of nations. Manuscript submitted for publication, University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  30. DiTella, R., MacCulloch, R., & Oswald, A. (1997). The macroeconomics of happiness. CEP Working Paper 19.Google Scholar
  31. Dolan, P., & White, M. P. (2007). How can measures of subjective well-being be used to inform public policy. Perspective on Psychological Science, 2, 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Economist Intelligence Unit. (2004). The economist intelligence unit’s quality-of-life index. Retrieved from November 17, 2012 from http://www.economist.com/media.
  33. Eid, M. (2008). Measuring the immeasurable: Psychometric modeling of subjective well-being data. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2004). Global judgments of subjective well-being: Situational variability and long-term stability. Social Indicators Research, 65, 245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eid, M., & Zuckar, M. (2007). Detecting response styles and faking in personality and organizational assessments by Mixed Rasch Models. In M. von Davier & C. H. Carstensen (Eds.), Multivariate and mixture distribution Rasch models (pp. 255–270). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferrer-i-Carbonell, P., & Frijters, P. (2004). How important is methodology for the estimates of the determinants of happiness? Economic Journal, 114, 641–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frey, B., & Stutzer, A. (2000). Happiness, economy, and institutions. Economic Journal, 110, 118–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frisch, M. B., Clark, M. P., Rouse, S. V., Rudd, M. D., Paweleck, J., Greenstone, A., et al. (2005). Predictive and treatment validity of life satisfaction and the Quality of Life Inventory. Assessment, 12, 66–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Frisch, M. B., Cornell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P. (1992). Clinical validation of the Quality of Life Inventory: A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4, 92–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fujita, F., & Diener, E. (2005). Life satisfaction set point: Stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 158–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fulmer, A., Gelfand, M. J., Kruglanski, A., Kim-Prieto, C., Diener, E., Pierro, A., et al. (2010). On “feeling right” in cultural contexts: How person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being. Psychological Science, 21, 1563–1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Graham, C. (2009). Happiness around the world: The paradox of happy peasants and miserable millionaires. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hagerty, M., & Veenhoven, R. (2003). Wealth and happiness revisited—Growing national income does go with greater happiness. Social Indicators Research, 64, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hedges, L. V. (1987). How hard is hard science, how soft is soft science? American Psychologist, 42, 443–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Helliwell, J. F. (2007). Well-being and social capital: Does suicide pose a puzzle? Social Indicators Research, 81, 455–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hsee, C. K., & Zhang, J. (2010). General evaluability theory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 343–355.Google Scholar
  47. Inglehart, R. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Inglehart, R. (1997). Modernization and postmodernization: Cultural, economic and political change in 43 societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Inglehart, R., & Klingemann, H. D. (2000). Genes, culture, democracy and happiness. In E. Diener & E. Suh (Eds.), Subjective well-being across cultures (pp. 165–183). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  50. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change, and democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2010). Changing mass priorities: The link between modernization and democracy. Perspectives on Politics, 8, 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Joy, R. H. (1990). Path analytic investigation of stress-symptom relationships: Physical and psychological symptom models. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.Google Scholar
  53. King, D. A., & Buchwald, A. M. (1982). Sex differences in subclinical depression: Administration of the Beck Depression Inventory in public and private disclosure situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 963–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koivumaa-Honkanen, H., Honkanen, R., Viinamaeki, H., Heikkilae, K., Kaprio, J., & Koskenvuo, M. (2001). Life satisfaction and suicide: A 20-year follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 433–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krueger, A. B., & Schkade, D. (2008). The reliability of subjective well-being measures. Journal of Public Economics, 92, 1833–1845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgments across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lawless, N. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2011). Prediction of regional well-being: A county level analysis. Social Indicators Research, 101, 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lucas, R. E. (2007). Long-term disability is associated with lasting changes in subjective well-being: Evidence from two nationally representative longitudinal studies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 717–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lucas, R. E., & Clark, A. E. (2006). Do people really adapt to marriage? Journal of Happiness Studies, 7, 405–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2003). Reexamining adaptation and the set point model of happiness: Reactions to changes in marital status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 527–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set-point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15, 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2007). How stable is happiness? Using the STARTS model to estimate the stability of life satisfaction. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1091–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2011). Estimating the reliability of single-item life satisfaction measures: Results from four national panel studies. Social Indicators Research, 105, 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lucas, R. E., & Lawless, N. M. (2011). Weather conditions are unrelated to life satisfaction judgments: Evidence from a large representative sample in the U.S. Manuscript submitted for publication, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  66. Luechinger, S. (2009). Valuing air quality using the life satisfaction approach. Economic Journal, 119, 482–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Luhmann, M., & Eid, M. (2009). Does it really feel the same? Changes in life satisfaction following repeated life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 363–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Luhmann, M., Hawkley, L. C., Eid, M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2012). Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being. Journal of Research in Personality (in press).Google Scholar
  69. Luhmann, M., Hoffmann, W., Eid, M., & Lucas, R. E. (2012). Subjective well-being and adaptation to life events: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(3), 592–615.Google Scholar
  70. Luhmann, M., Lucas, R. E., Eid, M., & Diener, E. (2012). The prospective effect of life satisfaction on life events. Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi:10.1177/1948550612440105 (advanced online publication).
  71. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7, 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Michalos, A. C. (1985). Multiple discrepancies theory (MDT). Social Indicators Research, 16, 347–413.Google Scholar
  73. Michalos, A. C., & Kahlke, P. M. (2010). Stability and sensitivity in perceived quality of life measures: Some panel results. Social Indicators Research, 98, 403–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Moum, T. (1996). Subjective well-being as a short- and long-term predictor of suicide in the general population. Paper presented at the world conference in quality of life, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada. August 22–25.Google Scholar
  75. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2004). Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Oishi, S. (2006). The concept of life satisfaction across cultures: An IRT analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oishi, S. (2010). Culture and well-being: Conceptual and methodological issues. In E. Diener, D. Kahneman, & J. F. Helliwell (Eds.), International differences in well-being (pp. 34–69). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oishi, S. (2012). The psychological wealth of nations: Do happy people make a happy society?. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2001). Re-examining the general positivity model of subjective well-being: The discrepancy between specific and global domain satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 69, 641–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oishi, S., Diener, E., Choi, D. W., Kim-Prieto, C., & Choi, I. (2007). The dynamics of daily events and well-being across cultures: When less is more. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 685–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oishi, S., & Roth, D. P. (2009). The role of self-reports in culture and personality research: It is too early to give up on self-reports. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 107–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Oishi, S., Schimmack, U., & Colcombe, S. J. (2003). The contextual and systematic nature of life satisfaction judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 232–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Oishi, S., & Sullivan, H. W. (2006). The predictive value of daily vs. retrospective well-being judgments in relationship stability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 460–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oswald, A. J., & Wu, S. (2010). Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: Evidence of the U.S.A. Science, 327, 576–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993a). The affective and cognitive context of self-reported measures of subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 28, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993b). Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sadvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Redelmeier, D. A., Katz, J., & Kahneman, D. (2003). Memories of colonoscopy: A randomized trial. Pain, 104, 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Robinson, M. D. (2000). The reactive and prospective functions of mood: Its role in linking daily experiences and cognitive well-being. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 145–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodrigue, J. R., Baz, M. A., Widows, M. R., & Ehlers, S. L. (2005). A randomized evaluation of Quality of Life Therapy with patients awaiting lung transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 5, 2425–2432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rodrigue, J. R., Widows, M. R., & Baz, M. A. (2006). Caregivers of lung transplant candidates: Do they benefit when the patient is receiving psychological services? Progress in Transplantation, 16, 336–342.Google Scholar
  92. Roysamb, E., Harris, J. R., Magnus, P., Vitterso, J., & Tambs, K. (2002). Subjective well-being: Sex-specific effects of genetic and environmental factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sandow, E. (2011). On the road: Social aspects of commuting long distances to work. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Umea University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  94. Sandvik, E., Diener, E., & Seidlitz, L. (1993). Subjective well-being: The convergence and stability of self-report and non-self-report measures. Journal of Personality, 61, 317–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2002a). Life satisfaction is a momentary judgment and a stable personality characteristic: The use of chronically accessible and stable sources. Journal of Personality, 70, 345–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schimmack, U., Krause, P., Wagner, G. G., & Schupp, J. (2010). Stability and change of well being: An experimentally enhanced latent state-trait-error analysis. Social Indicators Research, 95, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schimmack, U., & Oishi, S. (2005). The influence of chronically and temporarily accessible information on life satisfaction judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schimmack, U., Radhakrishnan, P., Oishi, S., Dzokoto, V., & Ahadi, S. (2002b). Culture, personality, and subjective well-being: Integrating process models of life satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 582–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schneider, L., & Schimmack, U. (2009). Self-informant agreement in well-being ratings: A meta-analysis. Social Indicators Research, 94, 363–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. (1983). Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 513–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwarz, N., & Strack, F. (1999). Reports of subjective well-being: Judgmental processes and their methodological implications. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, & N. Schwarz (Eds.), Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 61–84). New York: Russell-Sage.Google Scholar
  102. Schwarz, N., Strack, F., Hippler, H. J., & Bishop, G. (1991). The impact of administration mode on response effects in survey measurement. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schwarz, N., Strack, F., Kommer, D., & Wagner, D. (1987). Soccer, rooms, and the quality of your life: Mood effects on judgments of satisfaction with life in general and with specific domains. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Scogin, F., Morthland, M., Kaufman, A., Burgio, L., Chaplin, W., & Kong, G. (2007). Improving quality of life in diverse rural older adults: A randomized trial of a psychological treatment. Psychology and Aging, 22, 657–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Scollon, C. N., Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 5–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Seder, J. P., & Oishi, S. (in press). Intensity of smiling in Facebook photos predicts future life satisfaction. Social Psychological and Personality Science. doi:10.1177/1948550611424968 (advanced online publication).
  107. Shirom, A., Toker, S., Melamed, S., Berliner, S., & Shapira, I. (2011). Life and job satisfaction as predictors of the incidence of diabetes. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 4, 31–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Shlyakhter, A., Shlyakhter, I., Broido, C., & Wilson, R. (1993). Estimating uncertainty in physical measurements, observational and environmental studies: Lessons from trends in nuclear data. In: Proceedings from the second international symposium on uncertainty modeling and analysis (pp. 310–317). College Park, MA.Google Scholar
  109. Slocum-Gori, S., Zumbo, B., Michalos, A., & Diener, E. (2009). A note on the dimensionality of quality of life scales: An illustration with the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Social Indicators Research, 92, 489–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Smith, T. W. (1979). Happiness: Time trends, seasonal variations, intersurvey differences, and other mysteries. Social Psychology Quarterly, 42, 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The Meaning in Life Questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Marmot, M., & McEwen, B. S. (2005). Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes. Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 6508–6512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, S. (2008). Economic growth and subjective well-being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox. National Bureau of Economic Research, working paper, no. 14282, August.Google Scholar
  114. Strack, F., Martin, L. L., & Schwarz, N. (1988). Priming and communication: Social determinants of information use in judgments of life satisfaction. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 429–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Strack, F., Schwarz, N., Chassein, B., Kern, D., & Wagner, D. (1990). Salience of comparison standards and the activation of social norms: Consequences for judgments of happiness and their communication. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 303–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stubbe, J. H., Posthuma, D., Boomsma, D. I., & De Geus, E. J. C. (2005). Heritability of life satisfaction in adults: A twin-family study. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1581–1588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Sudman, S., Greely, A. M., & Pinto, L. J. (1967). The use of self-administered questionnaires. In S. Sudman (Ed.), Reducing the cost of surveys (pp. 46–57). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  118. Suh, E. M. (2002). Culture, identity, consistency, and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1378–1391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Suh, E. M., Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Triandis, H. (1998). The shifting basis of life satisfaction judgments across cultures: Emotions versus norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 482–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Suh, E. M., Diener, E., & Updegraff, J. A. (2008). From culture to priming conditions: Self-construal influences on life satisfaction judgments. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2012). The strengths and weaknesses of the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Paper in preparation, University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  123. Tay, L., Diener, E., Drasgow, F., & Vermunt, J. K. (2011). Multilevel mixed-measurement IRT analysis: An explication and application to self-reported emotions around the world. Organizational Research Methods, 14, 177–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Urry, H. L., Nitschke, J. B., Dolski, I., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Mueller, C. J., et al. (2004). Making a life worth living: Neural correlates of well-being. Psychological Science, 15, 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Veenhoven, R. (2005). Apparent quality-of-life in nations: How long and happy people live. Social Indicators Research, 71, 61–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Vitaliano, P. P., Russo, J., Young, H. M., Becker, J., & Maiuro, R. D. (1991). The screen for caregiver burden. The Gerontologist, 31, 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Vitterso, J., Biswas-Diener, R., & Diener, E. (2005). The divergent meanings of life satisfaction: Item response modelling of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in Greenland and Norway. Social Indicators Research, 74, 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Watson, D. (2000). Mood and temperament. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  129. Welzel, C. (2013, forthcoming). Breaking free: People power and the human quest for emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Wiest, M., Schuz, B., Webster, N., & Wurm, S. (2011). Subjective well-being and mortality revisited: Differential effects of cognitive and emotional facets of well-being on mortality. Health Psychology, 30, 728–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wirtz, D., Kruger, J., Scollon, C. N., & Diener, E. (2003). What to do on spring break? The role of predicted, on-line and remembered experience in future choice. Psychological Science, 14, 520–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yap, S. C. Y., Anusic, I., & Lucas,. R. E. (2011a). Does personality moderate the reaction and adaptation to major life events? Evidence from the British Household Panel Study. Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  133. Yap, S. C. Y., Anusic, I., & Lucas, R. E. (2011b). Testing set-point theory in a Swiss national sample: Reaction and adaptation to major life events. Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  134. Zou, C., Schimmack, U., & Gere, J. (2012). Towards an integrated theory of the nature and measurement of well-being: A multiple-indicator-multiple-rater model. Paper submitted for publication, University of Toronto Mississauga.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  2. 2.The Gallup OrganizationWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Higher School of Economics, Moscow and St. PetersburgUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Psychological SciencesWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations