Social Indicators Research

, Volume 112, Issue 1, pp 129–149 | Cite as

Mapping Patterns of Multiple Deprivation and Well-Being using Self-Organizing Maps: An Application to Swiss Household Panel Data

Article

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to propose multidimensional measures of deprivation and wellbeing in contemporary Switzerland, in order to overcome the limitations of standard approaches. More precisely, we have developed self organising maps (SOM) using data drawn from the 2009 Swiss Household Panel wave, in order to identify highly homogeneous clusters of individuals characterized by distinct profiles across 44 indicators of deprivation and well-being. SOM is a vector quantiser that performs a topology-preserving mapping of the k-dimensional input data to a two-dimensional, rectangular grid of output units, preserving as much as possible the information contained in the original input data. “Topology-preserving” means that, when an SOM is properly developed, units that are close in the output space are also close in the input space. Our results suggest that the SOM approach could improve our understanding of complex and multidimensional phenomena, like those of well-being, deprivation, vulnerability, that show only a partial overlapping with standard income poverty measures.

Keywords

Well-being Deprivation Self-organizing map Swiss Household Panel Multidimensional measures 

References

  1. Alesina, A., Di Tella, R., & McCulloch, R. (2002). Inequality and happiness: Are Europeans and Americans different?. Harvard: Mimeo.Google Scholar
  2. Allardt, E. (1976). Dimensions of welfare in a comparative Scandinavian study. XIX: Acta Sociologica. 3.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. Americans’ perceptions of life quality. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson, T. (1987). On the measurement of poverty. Econometrica, 55, 749–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atkinson, T. (2000). La povertà in Europa. Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  6. Berghman, J. (1995). Social exclusion in Europe: Policy context and analytical framework. In G. Room (Ed.), Beyond the threshold. The measurement and analysis of social exclusion (pp. 19–28). Bristol: The Policy Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bourdieu, P. (1980). Le capital social: Notes provisoires. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 31, 2–3.Google Scholar
  8. Brandolini, A., & D’Alessio, G. (2002). Measuring well-being in the functioning space. Conference at on Hügel Institute. St Edmund’s College, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, S. L. (2004). Family structure and child well-being: The significance of parental cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Budowski, M., Tillmann, R., & Bergman, M. (2002). Poverty, stratification, and gender in Switzerland. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 28(2), 297–317.Google Scholar
  11. Burchardt, T., Le Grand, J., & Piachaud, D. (2002). Degrees of exclusion: Developing a dynamic, multidimensional measure. In J. Hills, J. Le Grand, & D. Piachaud (Eds.), Understanding social exclusion (pp. 30–43). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Byrne, D. (1999). Social exclusion. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Callan, T., & Nolan, B. (1991). Concepts of poverty and the poverty line: A critical survey of approaches to measuring poverty. Journal of Economic Surveys, 5, 243–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cantril, H. (1965). The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Castel, R. (1995). Les méthamorphoses de la question sociale. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
  16. Castel, R. (1997). Disuguaglianze e vulnerabilità sociale. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologia, 1, 41–56.Google Scholar
  17. Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  18. De Wilde, C. (2004). The multidimensional measurement of poverty in Belgium and Britain: A categorical approach. Social Indicators Research, 68, 331–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Wilde, C. (2008). Multidimensional poverty in Europe: Institutional and individual determinants. Social Indicators Research, 83, 233–256.Google Scholar
  20. Easterlin, R. A. (2001). Income and happiness: Towards an unified theory. Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, 111(473), 465–484.Google Scholar
  21. Ferro Luzzi, G., Flückiger, Y., & Weber, S. (2008). A cluster analysis of multidimensional poverty in Switzerland. In N. Kakwani & J. Silber (Eds.), Quantitative approaches to multidimensional poverty measurement (pp. 63–79). London: Palgrave MacMillan.Google Scholar
  22. Frey, B., & Stutzer, A. (2002). Happiness in economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Fuentes, N., & Rojas, M. (2001). Economic theory and subjective well-being: Mexico. Social Indicators Research, 53(3), 289–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gambetta, D. (1998). Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  26. Gazareth, P., & Suter, C. (2010). Deprivation and risk of impoverishment in Switzerland, 1999–2007. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 36(2), 213–234.Google Scholar
  27. Glatzer, W., & Zapf, W. (1984). Die Lebensqualität der Bundesbürger. Politik und Zeitgeschichte, B44, 3–25.Google Scholar
  28. Haller, M., & Hadler, M. (2006). How social relations and structures can produce happiness and unhappiness: An international comparative Analysis. Social Indicators Research, 75(2), 169–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halleröd, B. (1995). The truly poor: Indirect and direct consensual measurement of poverty in Sweden. Journal of European Social Policy, 2(5), 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heinzmann, C., & Bergman, M. M. (2010). Social exclusion and poverty between theory and empiricism: Mapping two social science constructs. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 36(3), 511–539.Google Scholar
  31. Kahneman, D. (2007). Economia della felicità. Milano: Il Sole 24 Ore Pirola.Google Scholar
  32. Kohonen, T. (1982). Self-organized formation of topologically correct feature maps. Biological Cybernetics, 43, 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kohonen, T. (2001). Self-organizing maps. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Layte, R., & Whelan, C. T. (2002). Moving in and out of poverty: The impact of welfare regimes on poverty dynamics in the EU. The Economic and Social Research Institute, University of Essex: EPAG Working Paper, 2002–2030.Google Scholar
  35. Lucchini, M., Pisati, M., & Schizzerotto, A. (2007). Stati di deprivazione e di benessere nell’Italia contemporanea. Un’analisi multidimensionale. In A. Brandolini & C. Saraceno (Eds.), Povertà e benessere. Una geografia delle disuguaglianze in Italia (pp. 271–303). Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  36. Luhmann, N. (1979). Trust and power. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  37. Martinez, R., & Huerta, J. R. (2004). Income, multiple deprivation and poverty: An empirical analysis using Spanish data. Working paper prepared for the 26th general conference of the international association for research in income and wealth, Cracow, Poland, 27 August to 2 September.Google Scholar
  38. Moiso, P. (2005). A latent class application to the multidimensional measurement of poverty. Quantity and Quality, 38(6), 703–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Muffels, R., & Fouarge, D. (2003). The role of European welfare states in explaining resources deprivation. The Economic and Social Research Institute, University of Essex: EPAG Working Paper, 2003–2041.Google Scholar
  40. Mutti, A. (1998). Capitale sociale e sviluppo. La fiducia come risorsa. Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  41. Negri, N. (1990). Saggi sull’esclusione sociale. Povertà, malattie, cattivi lavori e questione etnica. Torino: il Segnalibro.Google Scholar
  42. Nolan, B., & Whelan, C. T. (1996a). Resources, deprivation and poverty. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  43. Nolan, B., & Whelan, C. T. (1996b). Measuring poverty using income and deprivation indicators: Alternative approaches. Journal of European Social Policy, 6, 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Paugam, S. (Ed.). (1996). L’exclusion. L’état des savoirs. Paris: La Decouverte.Google Scholar
  45. Pisati, M., Whelan, C. T., Lucchini, M., & Maitre, B. (2010). Mapping patterns of multiple deprivation using self-organising maps: An application to EU SILC data for Ireland. Social Science Research, 39(3), 405–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Putnam, R. D. (1993). The prosperous community: Social capital and public life. American Prospect, 4, 13.Google Scholar
  47. Ringen, S. (1988). Direct and indirect measures of poverty. Journal of Social Policy, 17, 351–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Runciman, W. G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Saraceno, C. (1990). Nuove povertà o nuovi rischi di povertà? In N. Negri (Ed.), Povertà in Europa e trasformazione dello stato sociale (pp. 249–276). Milano: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  50. Saraceno, C. (Ed.). (2002). Rapporto sulle politiche contro la povertà e l’esclusione sociale 1997–2001. Commissione d’indagine sull’esclusione sociale. Roma: Carocci.Google Scholar
  51. Scitovsky, T. (1976). The Joyless economy: An inquiry into human satisfaction and consumer dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sen, A. (1981). Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sen, A. K. (1985). Commodities and capabilities. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  54. Sen, A. (2000). Social justice and the distribution of income. In A. B. Atkinson & F. Bourguignon (Eds.), Handbook of income distribution (Vol. 1, pp. 59–85). Oxford: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  55. Suter, C., & Iglesias, K. (2005). Relative deprivation and well-being: Switzerland in a comparative perspective. In H. Kriesi, P. Farago, M. Kohli, & M. Zarin-Nejadan (Eds.), Contemporary Switzerland: Revisiting the special case. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  56. Suter, C., & Paris, D. (2002). Ungleichheit und deprivation: Die Schweiz im Drei-Länder-Vergleich. Swiss Journal of Sociology, 28(2), 217–240.Google Scholar
  57. Tillmann, R., & Budowski, M. (2006). La pauvreté persistante: Un phénomène de classe, de cumul de désavantage ou d’individualisation? Revue swisse de sociologie, 32(2), 329–348.Google Scholar
  58. Walker, A., & Walker, C. (1997). Britain Divided: The growth of social exclusion in the 1980s and 1990s. London: Child Poverty Action Group.Google Scholar
  59. Whelan, C. T., Layte, R., & Maître, B. (2002). Income and deprivation approaches to the measurement of poverty in the European Union. In R. J. A. Muffels (Ed.), Social exclusion in European Welfare States. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  60. Whelan, C. T., Lucchini, M., Pisati, M., & Maitre, B. (2010). Understanding the socio-economic distribution of multiple deprivation: An application of self-organising maps. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 28(3), 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Whelan, C. T., & Maître, B. (2005). Economic vulnerability, multi-dimensional deprivation and social cohesion in an enlarged European Union. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 46, 215–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Whelan, C. T., & Maître, B. (2007). Levels and patterns of multiple deprivation in Ireland: After the Celtic Tiger. European Sociological Review, 23, 139–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Business and Social SciencesUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern SwitzerlandMannoSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Sociology and Social ResearchUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMilanoItaly

Personalised recommendations