Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 112, Issue 1, pp 83–103 | Cite as

The Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale (PIWBS): A Culturally-Appropriate Self-Report Measure for Pacific Peoples in New Zealand

  • Sam ManuelaEmail author
  • Chris G. Sibley
Article

Abstract

We describe and validate the Pacific Identity and Wellbeing Scale (PIWBS). The PIWBS is a culturally appropriate self-report measure assessing a five-factor model of Pacific identity and wellbeing. Items and construct definitions were developed through qualitative interviews, review of psychological theories, and previous research on Pacific concepts of ethnic identity and wellbeing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the model (Study 1 N = 143; Study 2 N = 443). The proposed five-factor model of Pacific identity and wellbeing includes scales assessing (1) Perceived Familial Wellbeing, (2) Perceived Societal Wellbeing, (3) Pacific Connectedness and Belonging, (4) Religious Centrality and Embeddedness, and (5) Group Membership Evaluation. The PIWBS provides a culturally appropriate valid and reliable assessment tool that can be used for within-cultural research for Pacific peoples from a Pacific perspective. A copy of the PIWBS and scoring instructions for its use are included.

Keywords

Psychometric assessment Pacific culture Factor analysis Ethnic identity Wellbeing 

References

  1. ALAC. (2003). Fonofale [Diagram] Chapter 4: Consequences of alcohol and other drug use. In Alcohol, other drugs and young people: A training resource for youth worker educators (p. 62). Wellington, New Zealand: Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand. Retrieved from http://www.alac.org.nz/DBTextworks/PDF/AODYouthWorkCh4.pdf.
  2. Anae, M. (1998). Fofoa-i-vao-’ese: The identity journeys of NZ-born Samoans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  3. Anae, M. (2001). The New Vikings of the sunrise: New Zealand-born in the information age. In P. Spoonley, C. Macpherson, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata o te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa, New Zealand (pp. 89–101). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anae, M. (2006). The ‘Browning’ of New Zealand. In D. Williams (Ed.), Looking back, moving forward: The Janus women’s convention 2005 (pp. 36–43). Masterton: Masterton, Janus Trust in association with Fraser Books.Google Scholar
  5. Anae, M. (2007). O a’u/I: My identity journey. Pacific Rim Studies: Understanding the Pacific Islander, 1, 37–46.Google Scholar
  6. Arlidge, B., Abel, S., Asiasiga, L., Milne, S. L., Crengle, S., & Ameratunga, S. N. (2009). Experiences of whanau/families when injured children are admitted to hospital: a multi-ethnic qualitative study from Aotearoa/New Zealand. Ethnicity and Health, 14, 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5–68.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, J. W., Phinney, J., Sam, D., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity, and adaptations across national contexts. New Jersey: Mahwah.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, T., Devina, N., Leslie, E., Paiti, M., Sila’ila’i, E., Umaki, S., et al. (2007). Reflective engagement in cultural history: A Lacanian perspective on Pasifika teachers in Aotearoa New Zealand. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 15, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carter, K. N., Hayward, M., Blakely, T., & Shaw, C. (2009a). How much and for whom does self-identified ethnicity change over time in New Zealand? Results from a longitudinal study. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 36, 32–45.Google Scholar
  12. Carter, S., Williams, M., Paterson, J., & Iusitini, L. (2009b). Do perceptions of neighbourhood problems contribute to maternal health?: Findings from the Pacific Islands Families study. Health & Place, 15, 622–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cummins, R. A., Eckersley, R., Pallant, J., van Vugt, J., & Misajon, R. (2003). Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: The Australian unity wellbeing index. Social Indicators Research, 64, 159–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diener, E. (2006). Guidelines for national indicators of subjective wellbeing and ill-being. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 1, 151–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diener, E. (2009). The science of wellbeing. Social Indicators Research Series, 37, 11–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diener, E., & Tov, W. (2007). Culture and subjective wellbeing. In S. Kitayama & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of cultural psychology (pp. 691–713). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Faleafa, M. (2009). Community rehabilitation outcomes across cultures following traumatic brain injury. Pacific Health Dialog, 15, 28–34.Google Scholar
  18. Houkamau, C. A., & Sibley, C. G. (2010). The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39, 8–25.Google Scholar
  19. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunkin-Tuiletufuga, G. (2001). Pasefika languages and Pasefika identities: Contemporary and future challenges. In C. Macpherson, P. Spoonley, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata O Te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 196–211). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kupa, K. (2009). Te Vaka Atafaga: a Tokelau assessment model for supporting holistic mental health practice with Tokelau people in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Pacific Health Dialog, 15, 156–163.Google Scholar
  22. Macpherson, C. (1996). Pacific Islands identity and community. In P. Spoonley, D. Pearson, & C. Macpherson (Eds.), Nga Patai: Racism and ethnic relations in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 124–143). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  23. Macpherson, C. (2001). One trunk sends out many branches: Pacific cultures and cultural identity. In C. Macpherson, P. Spoonley, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata O Te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 66–80). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  24. Mila-Schaaf, K. (2010). Polycultural capital and the Pasifika second generation: negotiating identities in diasporic places. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand.Google Scholar
  25. Mila-Schaaf, K., Robinson, E., Schaaf, D., Denny, S., & Watson, P. D. (2008). A health profile of Pacific youth: Findings of youth 2000. A National Secondary School Youth Health Survey. Auckland: University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Health. (1995). Pacific Islands peoples’ understanding of mental health. Strategic directions for the mental health services for Pacific Islands people. Wellington: Ministry of Health.Google Scholar
  27. Mulitalo-Lauta, P. T. (2001). Pacific peoples’ identities and social services in New Zealand: Creating new options. In C. Macpherson, P. Spoonley, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata O Te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 247–262). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pene, G., Peita, M., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2009). Living the Tokelauan way in New Zealand. The Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 35, 79–92.Google Scholar
  29. Phinney, J. S. (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 9, 34–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Phinney, J. S. (1991). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: A review and integration. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13, 193–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and wellbeing: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 493–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robinson, G., Warren, H., Samu, K., Wheeler, A., Matangi-Karsten, H., & Agnew, F. (2006). Pacific healthcare workers and their treatment interventions for Pacific clients with alcohol and drug issues in New Zealand. Retrieved 26 April 2010, from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/119-1228/1809/.
  35. Sellers, R. M., Smith, M. A., Shelton, J. N., Rowley, S. A. J., & Chavous, T. M. (1998). Multidimensional model of racial identity: A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2, 18–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Statistics New Zealand. (2006). Census of population and dwellings. Wellington: Statistics New Zealand.Google Scholar
  37. Suaalii-Sauni, T., Wheeler, A., Saafi, E., Robinson, G., Agnew, F., Warren, H., et al. (2009). Exploration of Pacific perspectives of Pacific models of mental health service deliver in New Zealand. Pacific Health Dialog, 15, 18–27.Google Scholar
  38. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Tamasese, K., Peteru, C., & Waldegrave, C. (1997). O le Taeo Afua—The new morning: A qualitative investigation into Samoan perspectives on mental health and culturally appropriate services. Wellington: The Family Centre & NZ Health Research Council.Google Scholar
  40. Taule’ale’ausumai, F. (2001). New religions, new identities: The changing contours of religious commitment. In C. Macpherson, P. Spoonley, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata O Te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 181–195). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar
  41. Taumoefolau, M., Starks, D., Davis, K., & Bell, A. (2002). Linguists and language maintenance: Pasifika languages in Manukau, New Zealand. Oceanic Linguistics, 41, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Te Pou. (2010). Talking therapies for Pasifika peoples: Best and promising practice guide for mental health and addiction services. Auckland: Te Pou o te Whakaaro Nui.Google Scholar
  43. Tiatia, J. (1998). Caught between cultures: A New Zealand-born Pacific Island perspective. Ellerslie, Auckland: Christian Research Association.Google Scholar
  44. Wells, J. E., Oakley-Browne, M. A., Scott, K. M., McGee, M. A., Baxter, J., & Kokaua, J. (2006). Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey: Overview of methods and findings. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 835–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yip, T., & Fuligni, A. J. (2002). Daily variation in ethnic identity, ethnic behaviors, and psychological well-being among American adolescents of Chinese descent. Child Development, 73, 1557–1572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zemke-White, K. (2001). Rap music and Pacific identity in Aotearoa: Popular music and the politics of opposition. In C. Macpherson, P. Spoonley, & M. Anae (Eds.), Tagata O Te Moana Nui: The evolving identities of Pacific peoples in Aotearoa/New Zealand (pp. 228–242). Palmerston North, NZ: Dunmore Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations