A Preliminary Examination of Covitality as Integrated Well-Being in College Students
- 1.1k Downloads
The emergence of positive psychology has generated increased interest about the correlates of positive psychological functioning. Researchers have identified and studied various positive psychological constructs (e.g., hope, optimism, self-efficacy, gratitude, and life satisfaction) and found them to covary and to be positively associated with optimal human functioning and negatively associated with mental illness. This study of 528 college students examined the co-occurrence of selected positive psychological traits and explored their relations with a proposed second-order latent construct called covitality and with psychological well-being. Structural equation modeling examined each first-order positive psychology construct related to the second-order concept of covitality. Findings supported the second-order latent factor model of covitality, which was also significantly related to indicators of psychological well-being. Implications for theory development related to understanding positive human resources and applications within the context of college student populations are discussed.
KeywordsCovitality Positive psychology Well-being College students Psychological well-being
This work was partially supported by the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Research Fund granted to Sukkyung You and is based on the doctoral dissertation of Camille Jones.
- Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1992). Modeling cognitive adaptation: A longitudinal investigation of the impact of individual differences and coping on college adjustment and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 989–1003. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2005). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 303–311). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Money and happiness: Income and subjective well-being across nations. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 185–218). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Fredrickson, B. L. (2009). Positivity: Groundbreaking research reveals how to embrace the hidden strength of positive emotions, overcome negativity, and thrive. New York, NY: Crown.Google Scholar
- Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207–222. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090197.
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Kuykendall, C. (2004). From rage to hope: Strategies for reclaiming Black & Hispanic students (2nd ed.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.Google Scholar
- Lounsbury, J. W., Fisher, L. A., Levy, J. J., & Welsh, D. P. (2009). An investigation of character strengths in relation to the academic success of college students. Individual Differences Research, 7, 52–69.Google Scholar
- Maddux, J. E. (2005). Self-efficacy: The power of believing you can. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 277–287). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199905)55:5<539:AID-JCLP2>3.0.CO;2-G.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus user’s guide (5th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). BASC-2 Behavioral assessment system for children, second edition manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
- Robinson, C., & Snipes, K. (2009). Hope, optimism and self-efficacy: A system of competence and control enhancing African American college students academic well-being. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 35(2), 16–26. Downloaded, from http://mlrv.ua.edu/2009/vol35_2/Robinson_Snipes_proof_2.pdf.
- Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078. doi: 10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. In J. Weinman, S. right, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology (pp. 3–12). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585. doi: 10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Steiger, J. H., & Lind, A. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IA.Google Scholar
- U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Employment status of the civilian non-institutional population 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Washington, DC: Author (Government Report). Retrieved, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat7.pdf.