Social Indicators Research

, Volume 106, Issue 2, pp 333–345 | Cite as

Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

  • Necla Acun KapikiranEmail author


The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale University in Turkey participated as subjects in the study. Data were collected by using PANAS, LOT, and SWLS. The relationship between optimism and satisfaction was partially mediated by both positive and negative affectivity. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that positive and negative affectivity did not moderate the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction.


Life satisfaction Optimism Positive affectivity Negative affectivity Turkish university student 


  1. Abele, A. E., & Gendolla, G. H. E. (1999). Satisfaction judgments in positive and negative moods: Effects of concurrent assimilation and contrast producing processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(7), 883–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anaby, D., Jarus, T., & Zumbo, B. D. (2010). Psychometric evaluation of the Hebrew language version of the satisfaction with life scale. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 267–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aydın, G., & Tezer, E. (1991). İyimserlik, sağlık sorunları ve akademik başarı ilişkisi, [The Relationship between optimism, physical symptoms, and academic achievement]. Psikoloji Dergisi, 26(7), 2–9.Google Scholar
  4. Ayyash-Abdo, H., & Alamuddin, R. (2007). Predictors of subjective well-being among college youth in Lebanon. The Journal of Social Psychology, 147(3), 265–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burris, J. L., Brechting, E. H., Salsman, J., & Carlson, C. R. (2009). Factor associated with the psychological well-being and distress o university student. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 526–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Busseri, M. A., Sadava, S. W., & Decourville, N. (2007). A hybrid model for research on subjective well-being: Examining common- and component-specific sources of variance in life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Social Indicators Research, 83, 413–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2005). Optimism. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 182–204). NC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Chang, E. C. (1998). Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor: Controlling for confounding influences and relations to coping and psychological and physical adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1109–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chang, E. C., Maydeu-Olivares, A., & Zurilla, T. J. D. (1997). Partially independent constructs: Relationship to positive and negative affectivity and psychological well-being. Personality Individual Difference, 23(3), 433–440.Google Scholar
  11. Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affective in middle-aged adults: A test of a cognitive and affective model of psychological adjustment. Psychology and Aging, 6(3), 524–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, E. C., Sanna, L. J., & Yang, K.-M. (2003). Optimism, pessimism, affectivity, and psychological adjustment in US and Korea: A test of a mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1195–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Mikels, J. A., & Conway, A. M. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective well-being: The science of happines and life satisfaction. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 63–73). NC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.Google Scholar
  17. Edwards, L. M., & Lopez, S. J. (2006). Perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction in Mexican American youth: A mixed-methods exploration. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(3), 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Extremera, N., Duran, A., & Rey, L. (2009). The moderating effect of trait meta-mood on perceived stress on life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 116–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Baron, R. M. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 51, 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(2), 218–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredrickson, B. L. (2005). Positive emotions. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 120–135). NC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Gadermann, A. M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Zumbo, B. D. (2010). Investigating validity evidence of the satisfaction with life scale adapted for children. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 229–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gençöz, T. (2000). Pozitif ve negatif duygu ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. [Positive and negative affect scale : The validity and reliability study]. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 15(46), 19–26.Google Scholar
  24. Göregenli, M. (1995). Kültürümüz açısından bireycilik-toplulukçuluk eğilimleri: Bir başlangıç çalışması (Individualism collectivism orientations in the Turkish culture: A preliminary study). Journal of Turkish Psychology, 10, 1–14.Google Scholar
  25. Güler-Kümbül, B., & Emeç, H. (2006). Yaşam memnuniyeti akademik başarıda iyimserlik etkisi. [optimism effects of academic achievement in Life satisfaction]. D.E.Ü. İ.İ.B.F. Dergi, 11(2), 129–149.Google Scholar
  26. Huebner, S. E., & Dew, T. (1996). The interrelationships of positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction in an adolescent sample. Social Indicators Research, 38(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Isaacowitz, D. M. (2005). Correlates of well-being in adulthood and old age: A tale of two optimisms. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 224–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., Durham, C. C., & Kluger, A. N. (1998). Dispositional effects on job and life satisfaction: The role of core evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jung, J. Y., Oh, Y. H., Oh, K. S., Suh, D. W., Shin, Y. C., & Jung Kim, H. (2007). Positive-thinking and life satisfaction amongst Koreans. Yonsei Med Journal, 48(3), 371–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1998). Kültürel psikoloji: Kültür bağlamında insan ve aile (Culturel psychology: Human and family of contex culture). Istanbul: YKY.Google Scholar
  31. Kitayama, S., Markus, H. R., Matsumoto, H., & Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: Self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1245–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Köker, S. (1991). Normal ve sorunlu ergenlerin yaşam doyumu düzeyinin karşılaştırılması [Comparison of the level of life satisfaction of normal adolescents and adolescents with problems]. Unpublished master’s dissertion, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.Google Scholar
  33. Kuppens, S. P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgements across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(1), 66–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lent, R. W. (2004). Toward a unifying theoretical and practical perspective on well-being and psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(4), 482–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Leung, B. W.-C., Moneta, G. B., & Mcbride-Chang, C. (2005). Think positively and feel positively: Optimism and life satisfaction in late life. International Journal Aging and Human Development, 61(4), 335–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Libran, E. C., & Piera, P. J. F. (2008). Variables cognitivas y afectivas como predictoras de satisfacción en la vida [Cognitive and affective variables as predictors of life satisfaction]. Psicothema, 2(3), 408–412.Google Scholar
  37. Lucas, R. E., Clark, A. E., Georgellis, Y., & Diener, E. (2004). Unemployment alters the set point for life satisfaction. Psychological Science, 15(1), 8–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. M. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will and ways: Their relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(5), 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marshall, G. N., Wortman, C. B., Kusulas, J. W., Herwig, L. K., & Vickers, R. R., Jr. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1067–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1995). Who is happy. Psychological Science, 6(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Oishi, S., Diener, E. F., Lucas, R. E., & Suh, E. M. (1999). Cross-cultural variations in predictors of life satisfaction: Perspectives from needs and values. Personality and Social PsychologyBulletin., 25, 980–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1984). Causal expectations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological Review, 91, 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peterson, C., & Vaidya, R. S. (2003). Optimism as virtue and vice. In E. C. Chang & L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Virtue, vice, and personality: The complexity of behavior (pp. 23–37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ring, L., Höfer, S., Mcgee, H., Hickey, A., & O’Boyle, C. A. (2007). Individual quality of life: Can it be accounted for by psychological or subjective well-being? Social Indicators Research, 82, 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roysamb, E., & Strype, J. (2002). Optimism and pessimism: Underlying structure and dimensionality. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Salsman, J. M., Brown, T. L., Brechting, E. H., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 522–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seligman, M. E. P. (1990). Öğrenilmiş iyimserlik (S. K. Akbaş, Trans.) (Learned optimism). Ankara: HYB.Google Scholar
  51. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Gerçek mutluluk.(S. K. Akbaş, Trans.) [Authentic happiness]. Ankara: HYB.Google Scholar
  52. Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2005). An investigation of a brief life satisfaction scale with elementary school children. Social Indicators Research, 73(3), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Shek, D. T. L. (2005). Economic stress, emotional quality of life, and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with and without economic disadvantage. Social Indicators Research, 71(1–3), 363–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sheldon, K. M., & Hoon, T. H. (2007). The multiple determination of well-being: Independent effects of positive traits: Needs, goals, selves, social supports and cultural contexts. Journal of Happiness Studies, 8, 565–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Is extremely high life satisfaction during adolescence advantageous?. Social Indicators Research, 78, 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Türküm, S. A. (2005). Do optimism, social network richness and submissive behaviors predict well-being? Study with a Turkish sample. Social Behavior and Personality, 33(6), 619–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Urry, H. L., Nitschke, J. B., Dolski, I., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Mueller, C. J., et al. (2004). Making a life worth living: Neural correlates of well-being. Psychological Science, 15(6), 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Watson, D. (2005). Positive affectivity. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), In Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 106–120). Washington DC: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scale. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DenizliTurkey

Personalised recommendations