Social Indicators Research

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 435–445 | Cite as

Geography of European Life Satisfaction

  • Adam Okulicz-KozarynEmail author


The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life satisfaction in one province may be related to life satisfaction in other provinces. This study shows that there are well-defined happiness clusters in Europe, but also some outliers.


Life satisfaction Spatial correlation European provinces 


  1. Aslam, A., & Corrado, L. (2007). No man is an Island: The inter-personal determinants of regional well-being in Europe, Unpublished.Google Scholar
  2. Baller, R. D., Anselin, L., Messner, S. F., Deane, G., & Hawkins, D. F. (2001). Structural covariates of U.S. county homicide rates: Incorporating special effects. Criminology, 39, 561–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonini, A. (2008). Cross-national variation in individual life satisfaction: Effects of national wealth, human development, and environmental conditions. Social Indicators Research, 87, 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, A. E. (2003). Inequality-aversion and income mobility: A direct test. DELTA Working Paper, 2003-11.Google Scholar
  5. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being. Psychological Science, 5, 1–31.Google Scholar
  6. Easterlin, R. A. (1974). Does economic growth improve the human lot?. In: David, P. A., & Reder, M. W. (Eds.) Nations and households in economic growth: Essays in honor of Moses Abramovitz (pp. 98–125). New York: Academic Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Easterlin, R. A. (1995). Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 27, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Easterlin, R. A. (2001). Income and happiness: Towards a unified theory. The Economic Journal, 111, 465–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Easterlin, R. A. (2003). Explaining happiness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100, 11176–11183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Easterlin, R. A. (2005). Building a better theory of well-being. In: Bruni, L., & Porta, P. L. (Eds.) Economics and happiness. Framing the analysis (pp. 29–65). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2000). Happiness, economy and institutions. Economic Journal, 110, 918–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haller, M., & Hadler, M. (2006). How social relations and structures can produce happiness and unhappiness: An international comparative analysis. Social Indicators Research, 75, 169–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lelkes, O. (2006). Tasting freedom: Happiness, religion and economic transition. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 59, 173–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Putnam, R. D., Leonardi, R., & Nanetti, R. Y. (1993). Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Rampichini, C., & SchifiniD’Andrea, S. (1998). A hierarchical ordinal probit model for the analysis of life satisfaction in Italy. Social Indicators Research, 44, 41–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Schyns, P. (2002). Wealth of nations, individual income and life satisfaction in 42 countries: A multilevel approach. Social Indicators Research, 60, 5–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tobler, R. W. (1970). A computer movie simulating urban growth in the Detroit region. Economic Geography, 46, 234–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Quantitative Social ScienceHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations