Advertisement

Social Indicators Research

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 155–172 | Cite as

The Relationship Between Hope, Eustress, Self-Efficacy, and Life Satisfaction Among Undergraduates

  • Geraldine O’SullivanEmail author
Article

Abstract

The construct of eustress was studied alongside hope and self-efficacy, to explore how these constructs are related to life satisfaction among undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to undergraduates to test the hypotheses that (1) as eustress levels increase, so will life satisfaction levels; (2) when eustress, hope, and self-efficacy are examined together, they will predict life satisfaction better than eustress alone; (3) eustress, hope, and self-efficacy will all be positively correlated with life satisfaction; and (4) self-efficacy will be the most positively correlated with life satisfaction. The results revealed a significant positive correlation between eustress and life satisfaction. A Hierarchical Linear Regression analysis revealed significant results supporting hypotheses 2 and 3, but not hypothesis 4. Results indicated that hope is the best predictor of life satisfaction. The work reported provides a reliable tool for measuring eustress, examines eustress in a new way at the academic level, and provides helpful information about student wellness to college administrators.

Keywords

Eustress Hope Self-efficacy Life satisfaction Well-being 

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. The American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents (pp. 307–337). Retrieved in December 2008 from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/014-BanduraGuide2006.pdf.
  3. Benson, H., & Allen, R. (1980). How much stress is too much? Harvard Business Review, 58, 86–92.Google Scholar
  4. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2002). The hopeful optimist. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 288–290.Google Scholar
  5. Chang, E. (1998). Hope, problem-solving ability, and coping in a college student population: Some implications for theory and practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54, 953–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. (2000). A model of burnout and life satisfaction amongst nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 454–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gmelch, W. (1983). Stress for success: How to optimize your performance. Theory Into Practice, 22, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hampton, N. (2000). Self-efficacy and quality of life in people with spinal cord injuries in China. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 43, 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lazarus, R. (1990). Theory based stress measurement. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Le Fevre, M., Matheny, J., & Kolt, G. (2003). Eustress, distress, and interpretation in occupational stress. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 726–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lovallo, W. (1997). Stress & health: Biological and psychological interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Luthans, F. (2002). The need for and meaning of positive organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 697–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Magaletta, P., & Oliver, J. (1999). The hope construct, will, and ways: Their relations with self- efficacy, optimism, and general well being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McGowan, J., Gardner, G., & Fletcher, R. (2006). Positive and negative affective outcomes of occupational stress. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 35, 92–98.Google Scholar
  17. Monk, E. M. (2004). Student mental health: The case studies. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 17, 395–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543–578.Google Scholar
  19. Quick, J. C., Quick, J. D., Nelson, D., & Hured, J. (1997). Preventative stress management in organizations. Washington, DC: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Risemberg, R., & Zimmerman, B. (1992). Self regulated learning in gifted students. Roeper Review, 15, 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Selye, H. (1975). Stress without distress. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Shaikh, B. T., & Deschamps, J. (2006). Life in a university residence: Issues, concerns, responses. Education for Health, 19, 43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Simmons, B. (2000). Eustress at work: Accentuating the positive. Dissertation, Oklahoma State University. Retrieved November 22nd, 2008, from the Claremont Colleges Library Database.Google Scholar
  24. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stajkovic, A., & Luthans, F. (1998). Self-Efficacy and work related performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tennen, H., Afteck, G., & Tennen, R. (2002). Clipped feathers: The theory and measurement of hope. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 311–317.Google Scholar
  27. Weiner, B. (1986). An attributional theory of motivation and emotion. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  28. Williams, J., & Coombs, T. (1996). An analysis of the reliability and validity of Bandura’s multidimensional scales of perceived self-efficacy. Annual meeting of the american educational research association. Retrieved April 24th, 2009 from the Claremont Colleges Library Database.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pitzer CollegeThousand OaksUSA

Personalised recommendations