Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Validation of the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

  • 331 Accesses

  • 8 Citations

Abstract

Participation in volunteer service is an indicator of quality of life. This study attempts to validate the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale (BAV), an assessment of the negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The BAV was administered to 5,946 Chinese adolescents. The BAV and its subscales were found to be internally consistent. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed two factors (i.e., “conceptual bias” and “instrumental bias”) against volunteering. This supports the factorial validity of the test. The BAV scores showed a differentiation of volunteers versus non-volunteers, thus supporting the criterion-related validity of the test. The negative correlations between BAV and (1) measures of positive beliefs about volunteering; and (2) purpose in life demonstrated the construct validity of BAV. The findings suggest that BAV is a reliable and valid instrument in assessing underlying negative beliefs about volunteerism among Chinese adolescents.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Barnett, M. A., Thompson, M. A., & Schroff, J. (1987). Reasons for not helping. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148(4), 489–498.

  2. Batson, C. D. (1995). Prosocial motivation: Why do we help others? In A. Tesser (Ed.), Advanced social psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

  3. Breckler, S. J. (1990). Applications of covariance structure modeling in psychology: Cause for concern? Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 260–273.

  4. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2009). Main reason for not volunteering last year as reported by non-volunteers who had volunteered in the past by selected characteristics, September 2005. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/volun.t07.htm.

  5. Calabrese, R. L., & Schumer, H. (1986). The effects of service activities on adolescent alienation. Adolescence, 21(8), 675–686.

  6. Canadian Centre for Philanthropy. (2010). Caring Canadians, involved Canadians: Highlights from the 2007 Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating. Retrieved March, 19, 2010 from http://www.givingandvolunteering.ca/reports/2007.

  7. Carlo, G., & Randall, B. A. (2002). The development of a measure of prosocial behaviors of late adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 31–44.

  8. Catalano, R. F., Berglund, M. L., Ryan, J. A. M., Lonczak, H. S., & Hawkins, J. D. (2004). Positive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 98–124.

  9. Chapman, J. G., & Morley, R. (1999). Collegiate service-learning: Motives underlying volunteerism and satisfaction with volunteer service. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 18(1/2), 19–33.

  10. Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., et al. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 74(6), 1516–1530.

  11. Cnaan, E. G., & Goldberg-Glen, R. S. (1991). Measuring motivation to volunteer in human services. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27, 269–284.

  12. Commission on Youth. (1998). Study on civic awareness and moral values of youth. Hong Kong: Commission on Youth.

  13. Central Committee on Youth. (1988). Report on youth policy. Hong Kong: Central Committee on Youth.

  14. Craumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1964). An experimental study in existentialism: The psychometric approach to Frankl’s concept of noogenic neurosis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20, 200–207.

  15. Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16–29.

  16. Eisenberg, N., Carlo, G., Murphy, P., & Van Court, P. (1995). Prosocial development in late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1179–1197.

  17. Ellis, S. J. (2002). The volunteer recruitment and membership development book. Philadelphia, PA: Energize.

  18. Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups. (2001). The view of young people on volunteering. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups.

  19. Finn, J. L., & Checkoway, B. (1998). Young people as competent community builders: A challenge to social work. Social Work, 43(4), 335–345.

  20. Flanagan, C., Jonsson, B., & Botchera, L. (1999). Adolescents and the “social contract”: Developmental roots of citizenship in seven countries. In M. Yates & J. Youniss (Eds.), Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  21. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  22. Hodgkinson, V. A. (1995). Key factors influencing care, involvement, and community. In P. G. Schervish, V. A. Hodgkinson, & M. Gates (Eds.), Care and community in modern society: Passing on the tradition of service to future generations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

  23. Hofer, M. (1999). Community service and social cognitive development in German adolescents. In M. Yates & J. Youniss (Eds.), Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  24. Hong Kong Legal Information Institute. (2009). Community service order. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from http://www.hklii.org/hk/legis/en/ord/378/s2.html.

  25. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.

  26. Independent Sector. (2010). Engaging youth in lifelong service: Findings and recommendations for encouraging a tradition of voluntary action among America’s youth. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from http://www.independentsector.org/programs/research/engagingyouth.html.

  27. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL 8.80: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.

  28. Kahne, J., & Westheimer, J. (1996). In the service of what? Phi Delta Kappan, 77(9), 592–599.

  29. Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, 31–36.

  30. Kretch, D., & Crutchfield, R. S. (1958). Elements of psychology. Oxford: Knopf.

  31. Latane, B., & Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 308–324.

  32. Law, M. F. B. (2008). Volunteer service participation among secondary school students in Hong Kong. Dissertation Abstracts International, 69(08A). (UMI No. 3326201).

  33. Law, B. M. F., & Shek, D. T. L. (2009). Beliefs about volunteerism, volunteering intention, volunteering behavior, and purpose in life among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. The Scientific World JOURNAL: TSW Child Health & Human Development, 9, 856–865. doi:10.1100/tsw.2009.32.

  34. Law, B. M. F., & Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Exploration of the factorial structure of the revised personal functions of the volunteerism scale for Chinese adolescents. Social Indicators Research (accepted).

  35. Leung, B. K. P. (1996). Perspectives on Hong Kong society. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.

  36. Liu, E. S. C., Holosko, M. J., & Lo, T. W. (Eds.). (2009). Youth empowerment and volunteerism: Principles, policies and practices. Hong Kong: City Polytechnic of Hong Kong Press.

  37. Magen, Z. (1998). Exploring adolescent happiness: Commitment, purpose and fulfillment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

  38. Marta, E., Rossi, G., & Boccacin, L. (1999). Youth solidarity, and civic commitment in Italy: An analysis of the personal and social characteristics of volunteers and their organizations. In M. Yates & J. Youniss (Eds.), Roots of civic identity: International perspectives on community service and activism in youth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  39. Midgley, J., & Livermore, M. (1998). Social capital and local economic development: Implications for community social work practice. Journal of Community Practice, 5(1–2), 29–40.

  40. Mongkok District Board. (1984). Community participation among Mongkok youths. Hong Kong: Author. (In Chinese).

  41. Nelson, D. A., & Crick, N. R. (1999). Rose-colored glasses: Examining the social information-processing of pro-social young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(1), 17–38.

  42. Pittman, K., Irby, M., & Ferber, T. (2001). Unfinished business: Further reflections on a decade of promoting youth development. In P. L. Benson & K. J. Pittman (Eds.), Trends in youth development: Visions, realities and challenges. Boston: Kluwer.

  43. Raskoff, S. A., & Sundeen, R. A. (1999). Community service programs in high schools. Law and Contemporary Problems, 62(4), 73–111.

  44. Reber, A. S. (1995). Penguin dictionary of psychology. London: Penguin books.

  45. Rioux, S., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: A motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 86, 1306–1314.

  46. Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: The Free Press.

  47. Salamon, L. M., & Sokolowski, W. (2001). Volunteering in cross-national perspective: Evidence from 24 countries. Working papers of the Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, No. 40. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Center for civil Society Studies.

  48. Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2004). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  49. Shek, D. T. L. (1992). Meaning in life and psychological well-being: An empirical study using the Chinese version of the purpose in life questionnaire. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(2), 185–200.

  50. Shek, D. T. L. (2007). Conceptual framework underlying the development of youth development program in Hong Kong. In D. T. L. Shek, H. K. Ma, & J. Merrick (Eds.), Positive youth development: Development of a pioneering program in a Chinese context. London: Freund Publishing House Ltd.

  51. Snyder, M., Clary, E. G., & Stukas, A. A. (2000). The functional approach to volunteerism. In G. R. Maio & J. M. Olson (Eds.), Why we evaluate: Functions of attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

  52. Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  53. Sun, R. C. F., & Shek, D. T. L. (2010). Life satisfaction, positive youth development, and problem behavior among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 95, 133–160.

  54. Weinstein, L., Xie, X., & Cleanthous, C. C. (1995). Purpose in life, boredom, and volunteerism in a group of retirees. Psychological Reports, 76, 482.

  55. Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., & Mazer, B. (2001). Voluntary service, peer group orientation, and civic engagement. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16(5), 456–468.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ben M. F. Law.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Law, B.M.F., Shek, D.T.L. Validation of the Beliefs Against Volunteering Scale among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong. Soc Indic Res 100, 287–298 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-010-9617-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Volunteerism
  • Chinese
  • Scale development
  • Negative beliefs