Does Working While in High School Reduce U.S. Study Time?
Recent research has generally found that working while in high school has small negative effects on student achievement (Ruhm 1995, 1997; Eckstein and Wolpin 1999; Oettinger 1999; Tyler 2003; Rothstein 2007). However, little research has been done to examine the mechanisms through which these negative effects occur. One plausible mechanism is the crowding out of study time by market work time. To examine this mechanism we use 2003–2006 data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to estimate a simultaneous Tobit model that allows for time spent in market work and homework to be jointly determined, using controls for unobserved person-specific factors (such as motivation) that affect students’ desires to both work and do homework. It also accounts for censoring in the data. Results from this model suggest that time spent in market work does crowd out time spent on homework.
KeywordsMarket Work State Unemployment Rate Homework Time Daily Minute Short Recall Period
The authors would like to thank Michael Giandrea, Larry Rosenblum, and Cindy Zoghi for comments. The full set of results is available from the authors upon request.
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