Social Indicators Research

, Volume 93, Issue 1, pp 117–121 | Cite as

Does Working While in High School Reduce U.S. Study Time?

  • Charlene Marie Kalenkoski
  • Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia

Recent research has generally found that working while in high school has small negative effects on student achievement (Ruhm 1995, 1997; Eckstein and Wolpin 1999; Oettinger 1999; Tyler 2003; Rothstein 2007). However, little research has been done to examine the mechanisms through which these negative effects occur. One plausible mechanism is the crowding out of study time by market work time. To examine this mechanism we use 2003–2006 data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to estimate a simultaneous Tobit model that allows for time spent in market work and homework to be jointly determined, using controls for unobserved person-specific factors (such as motivation) that affect students’ desires to both work and do homework. It also accounts for censoring in the data. Results from this model suggest that time spent in market work does crowd out time spent on homework.


A student’s decisions regarding the amount of time s/he spends doing homework and the time s/he spends in...


Market Work State Unemployment Rate Homework Time Daily Minute Short Recall Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Michael Giandrea, Larry Rosenblum, and Cindy Zoghi for comments. The full set of results is available from the authors upon request.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charlene Marie Kalenkoski
    • 1
  • Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsOhio UniversityAthensUSA
  2. 2.Division of Productivity Research and Program DevelopmentU.S. Bureau of Labor StatisticsWashingtonUSA

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