Social Indicators Research

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 91–109 | Cite as

Depressive Symptoms Among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Gender and Urbanization

  • Hildegunn FandremEmail author
  • David L. Sam
  • Erling Roland


The study investigates depressive symptoms among 3,431 adolescents aged 13–15 years. The sample comprises both native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway. The main finding of the study is that the level of depressive symptoms is significantly higher among the immigrant adolescents than their Norwegian counterparts. When analysed separately for boys and girls, the difference is still significant for boys. Generally depressive symptoms are significantly higher among girls than among boys. Depressive symptoms, especially in boys, may also be related to the degree of urbanization of the area they live in. In cities, there is a significant difference between native Norwegian and immigrant boys, with immigrant boys having a higher level of depressive symptoms than native Norwegians. The implications for future research about immigrant adolescents and their psychosocial adjustment are discussed.


Depressive symptoms Quality of life Adolescent Immigrant Gender Urbanization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hildegunn Fandrem
    • 1
    Email author
  • David L. Sam
    • 2
  • Erling Roland
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Behavioural ResearchUniversity of StavangerStavangerNorway
  2. 2.University of BergenBergenNorway

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