Social Indicators Research

, Volume 89, Issue 1, pp 169–177 | Cite as

Burnout and Wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in New Zealand Teachers

  • Taciano L. Milfont
  • Simon Denny
  • Shanthi Ameratunga
  • Elizabeth Robinson
  • Sally Merry
Article

Abstract

The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a public domain questionnaire measuring the degree of physical and psychological fatigue experienced in three sub-dimensions of burnout: personal, work-related, and client-related burnout. This study first examines the reliability and validity of the CBI in measuring burnout in New Zealand secondary school teachers, and then the relationship between burnout and wellbeing among this population. The CBI had acceptable reliability (internal consistency and homogeneity) as well as factorial and criterion-related validity. As expected, burnout was negatively related to wellbeing measures (wellbeing index, school connection, and perceived general health). The findings indicate that this burnout questionnaire is a valid instrument to use with New Zealand secondary teachers, and also highlight the potential impact of burnout on the health and wellbeing of teachers.

Keywords

Burnout Wellbeing Copenhagen Burnout Inventory Secondary school teachers New Zealand Validity Reliability 

References

  1. Abel, M. H., & Sewell, J. (1999). Stress and burnout in rural and urban secondary school teachers. Journal of Educational Research, 92, 287–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer, J., Unterbrink, T., Hack, A., Pfeifer, R., Buhl-Grießhaber, V., Müller, U., Wesche, H., Frommhold, M., Seibt, R., Scheuch, K., & Wirsching, M. (2007). Working conditions, adverse events and mental health problems in a sample of 949 German teachers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 80, 442–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biggs, A., & Brough, P. (2006). A test of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and psychological engagement. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58(Suppl.), 114.Google Scholar
  4. Briggs, S. R., & Cheek, J. M. (1986). The role of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of personality scales. Journal of Personality, 54, 106–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burke, R. J., & Mikkelsen, A. (2006). Burnout among Norwegian police officers: Potential antecedents and consequences. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 64–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmines, E. G., & McIver, J. D. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G. W. Bohinstedt & E. F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social measurement: Current issues (pp. 65–115). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Cinamon, R. G., Rich, Y., & Westman, M. (2007). Teachers’ occupation-specific work-family conflict. Career Development Quarterly, 55, 249–261.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7, 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the bahavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  10. Cotton, P. (2003). Special issue on occupational stress and wellbeing. Australian Psychologist, 38, 79–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cox, T., Tisserand, M., & Taris, T. (2005). Editorial: The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: Questions and directions. Work & Stress, 19, 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cunningham, W. G. (1983). Teacher burnout––solutions for the 1980s: A review of the literature. Urban Review, 15, 37–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn-out. Journal of Social Issues, 30, 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Demerouti, E. (2005). The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: Investigating the english translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work & Stress, 19, 208–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hemphill, J. F. (2003). Interpreting the magnitudes of correlation coefficients. American Psychologist, 58, 78–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jöreskog, K. G. (1999). How large can a standardized coefficient be? from http://www.ssicentral.com/lisrel/techdocs/HowLargeCanaStandardizedCoefficientbe.pdf. Retrieved May 17, 2006.
  18. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1996). PRELIS 2: User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  19. Kantas A., & Vassilaki, E. (1997). Burnout in Greek teachers: Main findings and validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Work & Stress, 11, 94–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kristensen, T. S., Borritz, M., Villadsen, E., & Christensen, K. B. (2005). The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout. Work & Stress, 19, 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kyriacou, C. (1987). Teacher stress and burnout: An international review. Educational Research, 29, 146–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: Directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kyriacou, C., & Sutcliffe, J. (1977). Teacher stress: A review. Educational Review, 29, 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lau, P. S. Y., Yuen, M. T., & Chan, R. M. C. (2005). Do demographic characteristics make a difference to burnout among Hong Kong secondary school teachers? Social Indicators Research, 71, 491–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lavanchy, M., Connelly, I., Grzybowski, S., Michalos, A. C., Berkowitz, J., & Thommasen, H. V. (2004). Determinants of rural physicians’ life and job satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 69, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levesque, M., Blais, M. R., & Hess, U. (2004). Dynamique motivationnelle de l’épuisement et du bien-être chez des enseignants africains [Motivational dynamic of burnout and well-being in African teachers]. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement, 36, 190–201.Google Scholar
  27. Levi, L. (1995). Work, worker and wellbeing: An overview. Work & Stress, 8, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maslach, C. (1976). Burned-out. Human Behavior, 5, 16–22.Google Scholar
  29. Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1986). Maslach Burnout Inventory manual (2nd ed.). Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  30. Naring, G., Briet, M., & Brouwers, A. (2006). Beyond demand-control: Emotional labour and symptoms of burnout in teachers. Work & Stress, 20, 303–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Odagiri, Y., Shimomitsu, T., Ohya, Y., & Kristensen, T. S. (2004). Overcommitment and high effort are strongly associated with burnout among Japanese nurses. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11(Suppl.), 214.Google Scholar
  33. Salo, K. (1995). Teacher stress and coping over an autumn term in Finland. Work & Stress, 9, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Santavirta, N., Solovieva, S., & Theorell, T. (2007). The association between job strain and emotional exhaustion in a cohort of 1,028 Finnish teachers. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 213–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Seidman, S., & Zager, J. (1991). A study of coping behaviors and teacher burnout. Work & Stress, 5, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Timms, C., Graham, D., & Caltabiano, M. (2006). Gender implications of perceptions of trustworthiness of school administration and teacher burnout/job stress. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 41, 343–358.Google Scholar
  37. Watson, P., Clark, T., Denny, S. et al. (2003). A health profile of New Zealand youth who attend secondary school. New Zealand Medical Journal, 116. from http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/116-1171/380/ Retrieved May 17, 2006.
  38. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1998). Wellbeing measures in primary health care/The Depcare Project (Report on a WHO Meeting, Stockholm, Sweden). Copenhagen: WHO.Google Scholar
  39. Winwood, P., & Winefield, A. H. (2004). Comparing two measures of burnout among dentists in Australia. International Journal of Stress Management, 11, 282–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taciano L. Milfont
    • 1
  • Simon Denny
    • 1
  • Shanthi Ameratunga
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Robinson
    • 2
  • Sally Merry
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Section of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Werry Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Department of Psychological MedicineUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations