Social Indicators Research

, Volume 80, Issue 3, pp 617–628 | Cite as

Validation of the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Sample of Chinese University Students

  • Shengquan Ye


The study aims at validating the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS; Pavot et al., 1998, `The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale', Journal of Personality Assessment 70, pp. 340–354) in a non-western context. Data from 646 Chinese university students (330 females and 316 males) supported the three-factor structure of the TSWLS. However, the first and fifth items in each subscale (past, present, and future) showed a series of problems. With these items excluded, the 9-item model provided a better fit to the data than the 15-item model while the factor structure remained almost unchanged. The author recommends that the 9-item TSWLS be used to measure temporal life satisfaction.

Key words

Chinese university students Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS) validation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abdallah, T.: 1998, ‘The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): Psychometric properties in an Arabic-speaking sample’, International Journal of Adolescence & Youth 7, pp. 113–119Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, F.M. and J P. Robinson: 1991, ‘Measures of subjective well-being’, in J.P. Robinson, P.R. Shaver and L. Wrightsman (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes, Vol. 1 (Academic Press, Inc, San Diego, CA, US), pp. 61–114Google Scholar
  3. Andrews F.M. and Withey S.B. (1976). Social Indicators of Well-being: Americans’ Perceptions of Life Quality. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Arrindell W.A., Heesink J. and Feij J.A. (1999). The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS): Appraisal with 1700 health young adults in The Netherlands. Personality & Individual Differences 26: 815–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atienza F.L., Balaguer I. and Garcia-Merita M.L. (2003). Satisfaction with Life Scale: Analysis of factorial invariance across sexes. Personality & Individual Differences 35: 1255–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bentler P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107: 238–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentler P.M. and Bonett D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin 88: 588–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blais M.R., Vallerand R.J., Pelletier L.G. and Brière N.M. (1989). L’Échelle de satisfaction de vie: Validation canadienne-française du “Satisfaction with Life Scale” (The satisfaction scale: Canadian-French validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale). Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 21: 210–223Google Scholar
  9. Diener E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin 95: 542–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener E., Emmons R.A., Larsen R.J. and Griffin S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment 49: 71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener E., Suh E.M., Lucas R.E. and Smith H.L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin 125: 276–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jöreskog K.G. and Sörbom D. (1993). LISREL 8: User’s Reference Guide. Scientific Software International, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  13. Lewis C.A., Shevlin M.E., Smekal V. and Dorahy M.J. (1999). Factor structure and reliability of a Czech translation of the Satisfaction With Life Scale among Czech university students. Studia Psychologica 41: 239–244Google Scholar
  14. McDonald R.P. (1999). Test Theory: A Unified Treatment. L. Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  15. McIntosh C.N. (2001). Report on the construct validity of the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale. Social Indicators Research 54: 37–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Neto F (1993). The Satisfaction With Life Scale: Psychometrics properties in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth & Adolescence 22: 125–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pavot W. and Diener E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Psychological Assessment 5: 164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pavot W., Diener E. and Suh E. (1998). The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment 70: 340–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pavot W.G., Diener E., Colvin C.R. and Sandvik E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction With Life Scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment 57: 149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sachs J. (2004). Validation of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a sample of Hong Kong university students. Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 46: 225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Seligman M.E.P. and Csikszentmihalyi M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist 55: 5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shin D.C. and Johnson D.M. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life. Social Indicators Research 5: 475–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Steiger J.H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research 25: 173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trautwein, U.: 2004, ‘The temporal facet of life satisfaction. A German adaptation of the scale of Pavot, Diener and Suh (1998)/Die temporalen Facetten der Lebenszufriedenheit: Eine deutsche Adaptation der Skala von Pavot, Diener und Suh (1998)’, Diagnostica 50, pp. 182–192Google Scholar
  25. Tucker, L.R. and C. Lewis: 1973, ‘A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis’, Psychometrika, pp. 1–10Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shengquan Ye
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Education The University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina

Personalised recommendations