Social Indicators Research

, Volume 77, Issue 1, pp 1–10

Subjective Well-Being in Mental Health and Human Development Research Worldwide: An Introduction

Article

Abstract

In this introduction to a special issue, the author suggests that a third generation of research on subjective well-being has emerged that is focused on health and human development as the presence of well-being (i.e., health) and not merely the absence of illness, disease, and developmental deficiencies. In turn, this article describes the construct of subjective well-being, its historical ties to the aftermath of World War II and the creation of the National Institute of Mental Health, its conceptual foundations, and empirical evidence supporting the view that it consists of two theoretical traditions – hedonia and eudaimonia. The nearly 50 years of research on subjective well-being has yielded as many as 13 distinct dimensions of subjective well-being in the United States. Consequently, new directions in subjective well-being are emerging such as the study of mental health as a complete state, which suggest the need for greater scientific attention to the integration of hedonic and eudaimonic measures and theory.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport, G.W. 1961Pattern and Growth in PersonalityHolt, Rinehart and WinstonNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Berger, M.L., Howell, R., Nicholson, S., Sharda, C. 2003‘Investing in healthy human capital’Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine4512131225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, D.E., Canning, D. 2000‘The health and wealth of nations’Science28712071209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bradburn, N.M. 1969The Structure of Psychological Well-beingAldineChicagoGoogle Scholar
  5. Bryant, F.B., Veroff, J. 1982‘The structure of psychological well-being: A sociohistorical analysis’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology43653673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantril, H. 1965The Pattern of Human ConcernsRutgers University PressNew Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Diener, E. 1984‘Subjective well-being’Psychological Bulletin95542575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., Griffin, S. 1985‘The satisfaction with life scale’Journal of Personality Assessment497175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diener, E., Seligman, M.E.P. 2004‘Beyond money: Toward an economy of well-being’Psychological Science in the Public Interest5131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E., Suh, E.M., Lucas, R.E., Smith, H.L. 1999‘Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress’Psychological Bulletin125276302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erikson, E. 1959‘Identity and the life cycle’Psychological Issues118164Google Scholar
  12. Grzywacz, J.G., Keyes, C.L.M. 2004‘Toward health promotion: The net contributions of physical and social behaviors’American Journal of Health Behavior2899111Google Scholar
  13. Gurin, G., Veroff, J., Feld, S. 1960Americans View Their Mental HealthBasic BooksNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., Keyes, C.L.M. 2003

    ‘Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies’

    Keyes, C.L.M.Haidt,  J. eds. Flourishing: Positive Psychology and the Life Well LivedAmerican Psychological AssociationWashington, D.C205224
    Google Scholar
  15. Headey, B.W., Kelley, J., Wearing, A.J. 1993‘Dimensions of mental health: Life satisfaction, positive affect, anxiety, and depression’Social Indicators Research296382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jahoda, M. 1958Current Concepts of Positive Mental HealthBasic BooksNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Jung, C.G.: 1933, Modern Man in Search of a Soul, W. S. Dell, C.F. Baynes, Trans. Hartcourt (Brace & World, New York).Google Scholar
  18. Kahneman, D., E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds.): 1999, Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (Russell Sage Foundation, New York).Google Scholar
  19. Keyes, C.L.M. 1998‘Social well-being’Social Psychology Quarterly61121140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keyes, C.L.M. 2002‘The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life’Journal of Health and Social Behavior43207222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Keyes, C.L.M. 2004‘The nexus of cardiovascular disease and depression revisited: The complete mental health perspective and the moderating role of age and gender’Aging and Mental Health8267275Google Scholar
  22. Keyes, C.L.M. 2005a‘Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete health model’Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology73539548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Keyes, C.L.M. 2005b‘Chronic physical disease and aging: Is mental health a potential protective factor?’Ageing International3088114Google Scholar
  24. Keyes, C.L.M. 2005c‘The subjective well-being of America’s youth: Toward a comprehensive assessment’Adolescent and Family Health4311Google Scholar
  25. Keyes, C.L.M., Grzywacz, J.G. 2002‘Complete health: Prevalence and predictors among U.S. adults in 1995’American Journal of Health Promotion17122131Google Scholar
  26. Keyes, C.L.M., Grzywacz, J.G. 2005‘Health as a complete state: The added value in work performance and healthcare costs’Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health47523532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keyes, C.L.M., Hysom, S.J., Lupo, K.L. 2000‘The positive organization: Leadership legitimacy, employee well-being, and the bottom line’Psychologist-Manager Journal4143153Google Scholar
  28. Keyes, C.L.M., Shmotkin, D., Ryff, C.D. 2002‘Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology8210071022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keyes, C.L.M., Waterman, M.B. 2003

    ‘Dimensions of well-being and mental health in adulthood’

    Bornstein, M.Davidson, L.Keyes, C. L. M.Moore, K. eds. Well-being: Positive Development Throughout the Life CourseErlbaumMahwah, NJ477497
    Google Scholar
  30. King, L.A., Napa, C.K. 1998‘What makes a life good?’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology75156165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Land, K.C. 1975

    ‘Social indicators models: An overview’

    Land, K.C.Spilerman, S. eds. Social Indicator ModelsRussell SageNew York536
    Google Scholar
  32. Layard, R. 2005Happiness: Lessons from a New ScienceAllen LaneLondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Lucas, R.E., Diener, E., Suh, E. 1996‘Discriminant validity of well-being measures’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology71616628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Maslow, A. 1968Toward a Psychology of Being2Van NostrandNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Miringoff, M., Miringoff, M. 1999The Social Health of the Nation: How America is Really DoingOxford University PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Rogers, C.R. 1961On Becoming a PersonHoughton MifflinBostonGoogle Scholar
  37. Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. 2001‘On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being’Annual Review of Psychology52141166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryff, C.D. 1989‘Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology5710691081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ryff, C.D., Keyes, C.L.M. 1995‘The structure of psychological well-being revisited’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology69719727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schwarz, N., Clore, G.L. 1983‘Mood, misattribution, and judgments of well-being: Informative and directive functions of affective states’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology45513523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Severin, F.T. 1965Humanistic Viewpoints in PsychologyMcGraw-HillNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Shmotkin, D. 1998

    ‘Declarative and differential aspects of subjective well-being and implications for mental health in later life’

    Lomranz, J. eds. Handbook of Aging and Mental Health: An Integrative ApproachPlenumNew York1543
    Google Scholar
  43. Sen, A. 1999Development as FreedomAnchorNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  44. Sigerist, H.E. 1941Medicine and Human WelfareYale University PressNew Haven, CTGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith, M.B. 1959‘Research strategies toward a conception of positive mental health’American Psychologist14673681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Spector, P.E. 1997Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Cause, and ConsequencesSageThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  47. Sullivan, S. 2004‘Making the business case for health and productivity management’Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine465661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Waterman, A.S. 1990‘The relevance of Aristotle’s conception of eudaimonia for the psychological study of happiness’Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology103944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Waterman, A.S. 1993‘Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology64678691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright, T.A., Bonett, D.G. 1997‘The role of pleasantness and activation-based well-being in performance prediction’Journal of Occupational Health Psychology2212219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wright, T.A., Cropanzano, R. 2000‘Psychological well-being and job satisfaction as predictors of job performance’Journal of Occupational Health Psychology58494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wright, T.A., Staw, B.M. 1999‘Affect and favorable work outcomes: Two longitudinal tests of the happy-productive worker thesis’Journal of Organizational Behavior20123CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations