Social Indicators Research

, Volume 76, Issue 2, pp 233–262 | Cite as

Well-Being Outcomes in Bolivia: Accounting for the Effects of Ethnicity and Regional Location

  • Ana S. Q. LiberatoEmail author
  • Carlton Pomeroy
  • Dana Fennell


This study assesses well-being differences in Bolivia. We specifically investigate whether ethnicity and regional location explain differences in housing quality, material wealth, sanitation, and educational achievement in Bolivia. We use the 1994 and 1998 DHS surveys of 9114 and 12109 cases, respectively, to test the study hypotheses, which predict that indigenous ethnicity and highland location negatively affect well-being. Results show that in both surveys, indigenous households had lower levels of housing quality, material wealth, and sanitation as compared to non-indigenous households. Indigenous heads of household also showed lower levels of education as compared to non-indigenous heads of household. Households located in the highlands showed lower levels of housing quality and sanitation in both 1994 and 1998. Highland location was a significant predictor of material wealth in the 1998 model but not in the 1994 one. Highland location was not a significant predictor of education in either the 1994 or 1998 models. Rural–urban location had the largest influence on well-being.


educational achievement ethnicity household location inequality well-being 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana S. Q. Liberato
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carlton Pomeroy
    • 1
  • Dana Fennell
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Florida SociologyGainesvilleUSA

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