Social Indicators Research

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 341–360 | Cite as

Testing for Measurement Invariance in the Satisfaction with Life Scale: A Comparison of Russians and North Americans

  • Kari L. Tucker
  • Daniel J. Ozer
  • Sonja LyubomirskyEmail author
  • Julia K. Boehm


This study examined the comparability of Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) [Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985, Social Indicators Research, 34: 7–32] scores across U.S. and Russian student and community groups. Criteria for weak measurement invariance were met when comparing U.S. and Russian groups (combining student and community samples). Criteria for weak and strong measurement invariance were met when comparing the U.S. and Russian student samples. However, when comparing the U.S. and Russian community samples, the results showed a significant statistic for a baseline model, indicating a lack of comparability across samples. The costs of failing to meet criteria for weak, strong, and strict measurement invariance are discussed.

Key words

culture life satisfaction measurement invariance subjective well-being 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kari L. Tucker
    • 1
  • Daniel J. Ozer
    • 2
  • Sonja Lyubomirsky
    • 2
    Email author
  • Julia K. Boehm
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIrvine Valley CollegeIrvineUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA

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