The Impact of the Use of Energy Sources on the Quality of Life of Poor Communities
- 301 Downloads
Over the last few decades, the energy literature has been dominated by a theory of transition. The theory of transition is based on the notion that households gradually ascend an ‘energy ladder’, which begins with traditional biomass fuels (firewood and charcoal), moves through modern commercial fuels (kerosene and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) and culminates with the advent of electricity. The ascent of the ‘energy body’, though not fully understood, is thought to be associated with rising income and increasing levels of urbanisation. Empirical evidence on energy and poverty issues has been to suggest that reality is rather more complex than the simple transitional theory would appear to suggest. To choose an appropriate set of indicators to measure the impact of electrification, this paper takes three basic different perspectives on human welfare, namely, basic needs, monetary, and non-monetary into consideration. According to the basic needs approach, welfare relates to people’s ability to satisfy their basic material needs. In the monetary approach it is a generally accepted view that the purchasing power of the household provides the best overall indicator of welfare. According to the non-monetary approach there has been a trend towards complementing economic measures of deprivation with non-monetary measures to obtain a multidimensional view of human well being, particularly by tracking health and education indicators. In the rest of the paper the two primary research projects conducted in two provinces in South Africa, namely KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo, will be discussed. The one research project is still in process. However, the methodology will be discussed. In this project a comparison will be made of households’ experiences in villages with and without electricity to see if and to what extent electrification contributed to the welfare of the communities. In the second project households were interviewed about their experiences in the use of paraffin as source of energy.
Keywordsaccidents energy sources electricity firewood needs paraffin poor welfare
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barnes, D. F. and L. Qian: 1992, Urban Interfuel Substitution, Energy Use and Equity in Developing Countries: Some Preliminary Results (Working Paper, Energy Series, no 53.) (Industry and Energy Department, World Bank, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
- Domdom, A., V. Abia and H. Pasimio: 1999, Rural Electrification Benefit Assessment Study: The Case of the Philippines (Draft) (Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP), World Bank, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
- Eberhard, A. A. and C. van Horen: 1995, Poverty and Power: Energy and the South African State (Pluto Press, East Haven, Connecticut).Google Scholar
- Energy Information Administration: 2003, Monthly Energy Review, September 2002, Appendix A, Thermal Conversion Factors [Online.] Available: http://www.eia.doe.gov.Google Scholar
- Foster, V., J. P. Tre, K. Lindert and C. Sobrado: 2000, Nota Preliminar sobre la Pobreza en Guatemala con Base en la ENIGRAM 1998/99 (Mimeo, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Division, Latin America and Caribbean Region, World Bank, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
- Hicks, N.: 1998, An Analysis of the Index of Unsatisfied Basic Needs (NBI) of Argentina with Suggestions for Improvement (Latin America and the Caribbean Region, Poverty Sector Unit, World Bank, Washington, DC).Google Scholar
- Lok-Dessallien, R. 1999Review of Poverty Concepts and IndicatorsUnited Nations Development ProgrammeNew YorkGoogle Scholar
- South Africa Survey 2000/2001: 2001 (South African Institute of Race Relations, Johannesburg).Google Scholar
- Statistics South Africa: 1999, October Household Survey, <!it>1999</it> (Statistical release PO317).Google Scholar
- Steenkamp H. A.: 2002, Population Estimates for South Africa by Magisterial District, Metropolitan Area and Province, 1996 and 2002 (Research Report 301) (Bureau of Market Research, Unisa, Pretoria).Google Scholar
- World Bank: 2000, World Development Indicators (Washington, DC).Google Scholar