Social Indicators Research

, Volume 73, Issue 3, pp 313–353 | Cite as

Dimensions Of Well-Being And Their Measurement: The Spf-Il Scale

  • Anna Nieboer
  • Siegwart Lindenberg
  • Anne Boomsma
  • Alinda C. Van. Bruggen


What are the dimensions of well-being? That is, what universal goals need to be realized by individuals in order to enhance their well-being? Social production function (SPF) theory asserts that the universal goals affection, behavioral confirmation, status, comfort and stimulation are the relevant dimensions of subjective well-being. Realization of these substantive goals and the perspective on opportunities to realize these goals in the future contributes to the affective and cognitive component of well-being. The theoretical elaboration of this theory has been published elsewhere. This paper provides a measurement instrument for the dimensions of well-being. To measure levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, status, comfort and stimulation and empirically validate the dimensions of well-being, the SPF-IL scale was developed. This paper presents findings from a pilot study (n=145), the main study (n=1094), a test–retest examination (n=163), and a validation study (n=725). The measurement model was tested by means of structural equation modeling. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the dimensional structure of well-being indicating construct validity. The overall fit of the model was sufficient, in spite of the somewhat problematic measurement of status, and the test–retest study showed an acceptable level of stability. As for the content validity of the dimensions and their measurement, various sub-studies showed that the SPF-IL scale is a valid instrument, doing at least as well as popular measures of overall well-being but also specifying its dimensions.


measurement instrument structural equation modeling subjective well-being 


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Copyright information

© springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Nieboer
    • 1
  • Siegwart Lindenberg
    • 2
  • Anne Boomsma
    • 3
  • Alinda C. Van. Bruggen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Health Policy and ManagementUniversity of RotterdamDR RotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Sociology and , Interuniversity Center for Social ScienceUniversity of GroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Statistics and Anne Boomsma, Measurement TheoryUniversity of GroningenThe Netherlands

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