Sex Roles

pp 1–11 | Cite as

Psychometric Properties of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) in Spanish Preadolescents

  • Alvaro SiciliaEmail author
  • Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez
  • Antonio Granero-Gallegos
  • María-Jesús Lirola
  • Rafael Burgueño
Original Article


Objectification theory postulates that the body is constructed as a sexual object and is subject to observation and evaluation in such a way that a person may feel that their body is an object. The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) to use with Spanish preadolescents. A total sample of 816 students, aged between 10 and 14 years-old, participated in the study. The sample was randomly split into two halves, and the psychometric properties of the OBCS were examined through a series of exploratory and then confirmatory factor analyses. The results supported a 12-item three-factor correlated model (body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs). The model structure was invariant across participants’ gender. Suitable values for internal consistency and temporal stability were obtained. Body surveillance and body shame negatively predicted self-esteem and positively predicted social physique anxiety, whereas appearance control beliefs positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted social physique anxiety. The present study provides evidence of the validity and reliability of an abbreviated version of the OBCS in Spanish preadolescents. This abbreviated version of the OBCS may allow researchers and practitioners to explore some body critical experiences and beliefs about appearance control among Spanish female and male preadolescents.


Objectification Ideal body Adolescence Body image 



This work was carried out with the aid received from the Research Plan and Transfer of the University of Almería (PPUENTE2019/009), Spain.

Declaration of Conflicting Interests

Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, María Jesús Lirola, and Rafael Burgueño declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11199_2019_1043_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 27.5 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Facultad de Eduación, Centro de Investigación en Salud y Administración PúblicaUniversidad de AlmeríaAlmeríaSpain

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