Psychometric Properties of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) in Spanish Preadolescents
- 19 Downloads
Objectification theory postulates that the body is constructed as a sexual object and is subject to observation and evaluation in such a way that a person may feel that their body is an object. The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) to use with Spanish preadolescents. A total sample of 816 students, aged between 10 and 14 years-old, participated in the study. The sample was randomly split into two halves, and the psychometric properties of the OBCS were examined through a series of exploratory and then confirmatory factor analyses. The results supported a 12-item three-factor correlated model (body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs). The model structure was invariant across participants’ gender. Suitable values for internal consistency and temporal stability were obtained. Body surveillance and body shame negatively predicted self-esteem and positively predicted social physique anxiety, whereas appearance control beliefs positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted social physique anxiety. The present study provides evidence of the validity and reliability of an abbreviated version of the OBCS in Spanish preadolescents. This abbreviated version of the OBCS may allow researchers and practitioners to explore some body critical experiences and beliefs about appearance control among Spanish female and male preadolescents.
KeywordsObjectification Ideal body Adolescence Body image
This work was carried out with the aid received from the Research Plan and Transfer of the University of Almería (PPUENTE2019/009), Spain.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Antonio Granero-Gallegos, María Jesús Lirola, and Rafael Burgueño declare that there is no conflict of interest.
- Alhija, F. N.-A., & Wisenbaker, J. (2006). A Monte Carlo study investigating the impact of item parceling strategies on parameter estimates and their standard errors in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 13(2), 204–228. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1302_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Costello, A., & Osbourne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Dakanalis, A., Timko, A. C., Clerici, M., Riva, G., & Carra, G. (2017). Objectified body consciousness (OBC) in eating psychopathology: Construct validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of the 24-item OBC scale in clinical and nonclinical adolescent samples. Assessment, 24(2), 252–274. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191115602553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fleiss, J. L. (2011). Design and analysis of clinical experiments. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20(1996), 181–215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00467.x
- Moradi, B., & Varnes, J. R. (2017). Structure of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Reevaluated 20 years later. Sex Roles, 77(5–6), 325–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-016-0731-x.
- Morin, A. J. S., Marsh, H. W., & Nagengast, B. (2013). Exploratory structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (2nd ed., pp. 395–436). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Motl, R. W., & Conroy, D. E. (2000). Validity and factorial invariance of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), 1007–1017. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200005000-00020.
- Moya-Garófano, A., Megías, J. L., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., & Moya, M. (2017). Spanish version of the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS): Results from two samples of female university students. Revista de Psicología Social, 32(3), 362–394. https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2017.1292700.
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2015). Mplus version 7: User’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
- Noll, S. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). A mediational model linking self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 623–636. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00181.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201272002.
- Sáenz-Álvarez, P., Sicilia, Á., González-Cutre, D., & Ferriz, R. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety (SPAS-7) in Spanish adolescents. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16(86), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2013.86.
- Schaefer, L. M., Harriger, J. A., Heinberg, L. J., Soderberg, T., & Thompson, J. K. (2017). Development and validation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-4-revised (SATAQ-4R). International Journal of Eating Disorders, 50(2), 104–117. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22590.
- Stapleton, L. M. (2006). Using multilevel structural equation modeling techniques with complex sample data. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), A second course in structural equation modeling (pp. 345–383). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Van den Brink, F., Vollmann, M., Sternheim, L. C., Berkhout, L. J., Zomerdijk, R. A., & Woertman, L. (2018). Negative body attitudes and sexual dissatisfaction in men: The mediating role of body self-consciousness during physical intimacy. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(3), 693–701. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1016-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu, C. Y. (2002). Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles.Google Scholar