Trans Prejudice in Sport: Differences from LGB Prejudice, the Influence of Gender, and Changes over Time
- 1.3k Downloads
The purpose of our study was to examine prejudice toward trans individuals in sport. Questionnaire data were collected from separate, albeit demographically similar, samples of students in 2007 (n = 199) and 2014 (n = 124). Results indicate that trans prejudice was higher than prejudice expressed toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and that these differences remained over time. There were no gender differences as women and men expressed the same degrees of trans prejudice. Finally, trans prejudice significantly decreased over time, although the magnitude of the change was not as large as the corresponding decrease in LGB prejudice. Study findings suggest that although prejudice against trans individuals has decreased, additional interventions and prejudice reduction efforts are needed.
KeywordsLGBT Transgender Trans Prejudice Gender Sport
The authors contributed equally to this work, and their names are listed alphabetically.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
All participants provided informed consent to participate.
The study was approved by the Texas A&M University Institutional Review Board.
- Anderson, E. (2009). Inclusive masculinity: The changing nature of masculinities. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Anderson, E., Magrath, R., & Bullingham, R. (2016). Out in sport: The experiences of openly gay and lesbian athletes in competitive sport. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Beemyn, G., & Rankin, S. (2011). The lives of transgender people. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Buzuvis, E. (2012). Including transgender athletes in sex-segregated sport. In G. B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 23–34). College Station, TX: Center for Sport Management Research & Education.Google Scholar
- Clarey, C. (2009). Gender test after a gold-medal finish. The New York Times, B13.Google Scholar
- Cunningham, G. B., & Melton, E. N. (2014). Signals and cues: LGBT inclusive advertising and consumer attraction. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 23, 37–46.Google Scholar
- Fidas, D., & Cooper, L. (2016). Corporate equality index 2017: Rating American workplaces on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender equality. Human Rights Campaign Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.hrc.org/files/assets/resources/cei_2014_full_report_rev7.pdf.
- Griffin, P. (2012). LGBT equality in sports: Celebrating our successes and facing our challenges. In G. B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 1–12). College Station, TX: Center for Sport Management Research & Education.Google Scholar
- Griffin, P. & Taylor, H. (2012). Champions of respect: Inclusion of LGBTQ student-athletes and staff in NCAA programs. Retrieved from http://www.ncaapublications.com/productdownloads/CRLGBTQ.pdf.
- Herek, G. M. (2009). Sexual prejudice. In T. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of prejudice (pp. 441–467). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- IOC Rules. (2016). IOC rules transgender athletes can take part in the Olympics without surgery. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2016/jan/25/ioc-rules-transgender-athletes-can-take-part-in-olympics-without-surgery.
- Krane, V., Barak, K. S., & Mann, M. E. (2012). Broken binaries and transgender athletes: Challenging sex and gender in sport. In G. B. Cunningham (Ed.), Sexual orientation and gender identity in sport: Essays from activists, coaches, and scholars (pp. 13–22). College Station, TX: Center for Sport Management Research & Education.Google Scholar
- Pew Research Center. (2016). Changing attitudes on gay marriage. Retrieved from http://www.pewforum.org/2016/05/12/changing-attitudes-on-gay-marriage/.