Sex Roles

, Volume 77, Issue 1–2, pp 46–58 | Cite as

The Unique Effects of Fathers’ Warmth on Adolescents’ Positive Beliefs and Behaviors: Pathways to Resilience in Low-Income Families

  • Marie-Anne SuizzoEmail author
  • Kadie R. Rackley
  • Paul A. Robbins
  • Karen Moran Jackson
  • Jason R. D. Rarick
  • Shannon McClain
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways through which fathers’ warmth influences adolescents’ grades. We investigated the positive beliefs of optimism and academic self-efficacy, and the motivational construct of determination, as possible mediators. Questionnaire data were collected from a sample of 183 sixth-graders (78 male, 105 female) from low-income families: 133 Mexican Americans, 36 African Americans, 11 European Americans, and 3 other ethnicity. Multigroup SEM path analysis was used to test two path models and investigate variations in these models by adolescents’ gender. Results revealed that, controlling for mothers’ warmth, fathers’ warmth predicts adolescents’ positive beliefs and that these relations vary by adolescents’ gender. For male adolescents, relations between fathers’ warmth and English language arts grades are mediated by academic self-efficacy and determination to persist on challenging schoolwork. For female adolescents, relations between fathers’ warmth and math grades are mediated by optimism and determination. These results demonstrate the unique contributions of fathers’ warmth to their sons’ and daughters’ emotional and academic development. Our study suggests that counselors and educators may positively influence adolescents’ well-being by encouraging fathers to communicate warmth and acceptance to their adolescents.


Academic achievement motivation Academic self-concept Adolescents African Americans Mexican Americans Emotional well-being Father-child relations Human gender differences Optimism Parental involvement Path analysis Self-efficacy Gender role attitudes 



The present study was funded by a grant from The Spencer Foundation [Grant # 200800101]. Preliminary and partial results of this study were presented at the 2012 biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Vancouver, BC, Canada. We acknowledge the cooperation and generosity of the Austin Independent School District, and various middle school administrators, teachers, students, and their parents.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Anne Suizzo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kadie R. Rackley
    • 1
  • Paul A. Robbins
    • 1
  • Karen Moran Jackson
    • 2
  • Jason R. D. Rarick
    • 3
  • Shannon McClain
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Urban Policy Research and AnalysisThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  3. 3.Department of Applied PsychologyNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

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