Sex Roles

, 64:768

Evolutionary Psychology and Feminism

Original Article

Abstract

This article provides a historical context of evolutionary psychology and feminism, and evaluates the contributions to this special issue of Sex Roles within that context. We briefly outline the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology and articulate its meta-theory of the origins of gender similarities and differences. The article then evaluates the specific contributions: Sexual Strategies Theory and the desire for sexual variety; evolved standards of beauty; hypothesized adaptations to ovulation; the appeal of risk taking in human mating; understanding the causes of sexual victimization; and the role of studies of lesbian mate preferences in evaluating the framework of evolutionary psychology. Discussion focuses on the importance of social and cultural context, human behavioral flexibility, and the evidentiary status of specific evolutionary psychological hypotheses. We conclude by examining the potential role of evolutionary psychology in addressing social problems identified by feminist agendas.

Keywords

Evolutionary psychology Feminism Sexual strategies Gender differences 

References

  1. Abbey, A. (1982). Sex differences in attributions for friendly behavior: Do males misperceive females' friendliness? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 830–838.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, U. S., Perea, E. F., Becker, D. V., Ackerman, J. M., Shapiro, J. R., Neuberg, S. L., et al. (2010). I only have eyes for you: Ovulation redirects attention (but not memory) to attractive men. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 804–808.Google Scholar
  3. Archer, J. (2009). Does sexual selection explain human sex differences in aggression? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkins, D. C., Baucom, D. H., & Jacobson, N. S. (2001). Understanding infidelity: Correlates in a national random sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 735–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bailey, J. M., Gaulin, S., Agyei, Y., & Gladue, B. A. (1994). Effects of gender and sexual orientation on evolutionary relevant aspects of human mating psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1081–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bassett, J., Pearcey, S., & Dabbs, J. M. (2001). Jealousy and partner preference among butch and femme lesbians. Psychology, Evolution, & Gender, 3, 155–165.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., Catanese, K. R., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Are there gender differences in strength of sex drive? Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 242–273.Google Scholar
  8. Bereczkei, T., & Csanaky, A. (1996). Mate choice, marital success, and reproduction in a modern society. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 17–35.Google Scholar
  9. Betzig, L. (1986). Despotism and differential reproduction: A Darwinian view of history. New York: Aldine.Google Scholar
  10. Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American couples. New York: William Morrow.Google Scholar
  11. Bradshaw, C., Kahn, A. S., & Saville, B. K. (2010). To hook up or date: Which gender benefits? Sex Roles, 62, 661–669.Google Scholar
  12. Brand, R. J., Markey, C. M., & Hodges, S. D. (2007). Sex differences in self-reported infidelity and its correlates. Sex Roles, 57, 101–109.Google Scholar
  13. Bryant, G. A., & Haselton, M. G. (2009). Vocal cues of ovulation in human females. Biology Letters, 5, 12–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burley, N., & Symanski, R. (1981). Women without: An evolutionary and cross-cultural perspective on prostitution. In R. Symanski (Ed.), The immoral landscape: Female prostitution in western societies (pp. 239–274). Toronto: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  15. Buss, D. M. (1987). Sex differences in human mate selection criteria: An evolutionary perspective. In C. Crawford, M. Smith, & D. Krebs (Eds.), Sociobiology and psychology: Issues, ideas, and findings (pp. 335–351). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Buss, D. M. (1988). Love acts: The evolutionary biology of love. In R. J. Sternberg & M. F. Barnes (Eds.), The psychology of love (pp. 100–118). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 1–49.Google Scholar
  18. Buss, D. M. (2003). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  19. Buss, D. M. (1995a). Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. The American Psychologist, 50, 164–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Buss, D. M. (1995b). Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 1–30.Google Scholar
  21. Buss, D. M. (1996). Sexual conflict: Evolutionary insights into feminism and the ‘battle of the sexes’. In D. M. Buss & N. Malamuth (Eds.), Sex, power, conflict: Evolutionary and feminist perspectives (pp. 296–318). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Buss, D. M. (2005a). (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Buss, D. M. (2005b). The murderer next door: Why the mind is designed to kill. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  24. Buss, D. M. (2006). The evolution of love. In R. J. Sternberg & K. Weis (Eds.), The new psychology of love (pp. 65–86). New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Buss, D. M. (2011). Evolutionary psychology: The new science of the mind (4th ed.). Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  26. Buss, D. M., & Barnes, M. L. (1986). Preferences in human mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 559–570.Google Scholar
  27. Buss, D. M., & Duntley, J. (1999). The evolutionary psychology of patriarchy: Women are not passive pawns in men’s game. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12, 53–62.Google Scholar
  28. Buss, D. M., & Duntley, J. D. (2008). Adaptations for exploitation. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 12, 53–62.Google Scholar
  29. Buss, D. M., & Duntley, J. D. (in press). The evolution of intimate partner violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior.Google Scholar
  30. Buss, D. M., & Malamuth, N. (Eds.). (1996). Sex, power. conflict: Evolutionary and feminist perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological Review, 100, 204–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (2008). Attractive women want it all: Good genes, economic investment, parenting proclivities, and emotional commitment. Evolutionary Psychology, 6, 134–146.Google Scholar
  33. Campbell, A. (2008). The morning after the night before: Affective reactions to one-night stands among mated and unmated women and men. Human Nature, 19, 157–173.Google Scholar
  34. Chrisler, J. C., & Erchull, M. J. (2010). The treatment of evolutionary psychology in social psychology textbooks. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, R. D. (1990). The impact of AIDS on gender differences in willingness to engage in casual sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 771–782.Google Scholar
  36. Clark, A. P. (2006). Are the correlates of sociosexuality different for men and women? Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1321–1327.Google Scholar
  37. Clark, R. D., & Hatfield, E. (1989). Gender differences in receptivity to sexual offers. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 2, 39–55.Google Scholar
  38. Cohen, L. L., & Shotland, R. L. (1996). Timing of first sexual intercourse in a relationship: Expectations, experiences, and perceptions of others. Journal of Sex Research, 33, 291–299.Google Scholar
  39. Confer, J. C., Easton, J. E., Fleischman, D. S., Goetz, C., Lewis, D. M., Perilloux, C., et al. (2010). Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. The American Psychologist, 65, 110–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Conley, T. D. (2011). Perceived proposer personality characteristics and gender differences in acceptance of casual sex offers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 309–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cornelissen, P. L., Tovee, M. J., & Bateson, M. (2009). Patterns of subcutaneous fat deposition and the relationship between body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio: Implications for models of physical attractiveness. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 256, 343–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cunningham, S. J., & Russell, P. A. (2004). The influence of gender roles on evolved partner preferences. Sexualities, Evolution & Gender, 6, 131–150.Google Scholar
  43. Davies, A. P. C., Shackelford, T. K., & Hass, R. G. (2007). When a ‘poach’ is not a poach: Re-defining human mate poaching and re-estimating its frequency. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 702–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. DeBruine, L., Jones, B. C., Frederick, D. A., Haselton, M. G., Penton-Voak, I. S., & Perrett, D. I. (2010). Evidence for menstrual cycle shifts in women’s preferences for masculinity: A response to Harris (in press) “Menstrual Cycle and Facial Preferences Reconsidered”. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 768–775.Google Scholar
  45. De Miguel, A., & Buss, D. M. (2011). Mate retention tactics in Spain: Personality, sex differences, and relationship status. Journal of Personality. Advance online publication.. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00689.x.Google Scholar
  46. Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Eagly, A. H. (1995). The science and politics of comparing women and men. The American Psychologist, 50, 145–158.Google Scholar
  48. Eagly, A. H., Eastwick, P. W., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M. (2009). Possible selves in marital roles: The impact of the anticipated division of labor on the mate preferences of women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 403–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. The American Psychologist, 54, 408–423.Google Scholar
  50. Ehrlichman, H., & Eichenstein, R. (1992). Private wishes: Gender similarities and differences. Sex Roles, 26, 399–422.Google Scholar
  51. Eckland, B. (1968). Theories of mate selection. Social Biology, 15, 71–84.Google Scholar
  52. Ellis, B. J., & Symons, D. (1990). Sex differences in sexual fantasy: An evolutionary psychological approach. Journal of Sex Research, 27, 527–556.Google Scholar
  53. Ellis, L. (2011). Evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory and universal gender differences in cognition and behavior. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  54. Epstein, E., & Guttman, R. (1984). Mate selection in man: Evidence, theory, and outcome. Social Biology, 31, 243–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Feinberg, D. R., Jones, B. C., Law Smith, M. J., Moore, F. R., DeBruine, L. M., Cornwell, R. E., et al. (2006). Menstrual cycle, trait estrogen level, and masculinity preferences in the human voice. Hormones and Behavior, 49, 215–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fenigstein, A., & Preston, M. (2007). The desired number of sexual partners as a function of gender, sexual risks, and the meaning of ‘ideal’. Journal of Sex Research, 44, 89–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fink, B., Brewer, G., Fehl, K., & Neave, N. (2007). Instrumentality and lifetime number of sexual partners. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 747–756.Google Scholar
  58. Finkel, E. J., & Eastwick, P. W. (2009). Arbitrary social norms influence sex differences in romantic selectivity. Psychological Science, 20, 1290–1295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Frisby, B. N., Dillow, M. R., Gaughan, S., & Norlund, J. (2010). Flirtatious communication: An experimental examination of perceptions of social-sexual communication motivated by evolutionary forces. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  60. Gangestad, S. W., & Buss, D. M. (1993). Pathogen prevalence and human mate preferences. Ethology and Sociobiology, 14, 89–96.Google Scholar
  61. Gangestad, S. W., Haselton, M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2006). Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: Evoked culture and mate preferences. Psychological Inquiry, 17, 75–95.Google Scholar
  62. Gangestad, S. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 573–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Geary, D. C. (2010). Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  64. Glass, S. P., & Wright, T. L. (1985). Sex differences in type of extramarital involvement and marital dissatisfaction. Sex Roles, 12, 1101–1120.Google Scholar
  65. de Graaf, H., & Sandfort, T. G. M. (2004). Gender differences in affective responses to sexual rejection. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 395–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Gowaty, P. A. (1992). Evolutionary biology and feminism. Human Nature, 3, 217–249.Google Scholar
  67. Greitemeyer, T. (2005). Receptivity to sexual offers as a function of sex, socioeconomic status, physical attractiveness, and intimacy of the offer. Personal Relationships, 12, 373–386.Google Scholar
  68. Hald, G. M. (2006). Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 577–585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hald, G. M., & Høgh-Olesen, H. (2010). Receptivity to sexual invitations from strangers of the opposite gender. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31, 453–458.Google Scholar
  70. Hannagan, R. J. (2008). Gender political behavior: A Darwinian feminist approach. Sex Roles, 59, 465–475.Google Scholar
  71. Hannagan, R. J. (2011). One species, two sexes, and politics by other means [Review of the book Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences, by D.C. Geary]. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  72. Hansen, G. L. (1987). Extradyadic relations during courtship. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 382–390.Google Scholar
  73. Harris, C. R. (2010). Menstrual cycle and facial preferences reconsidered. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  74. Haselton, M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2000). Error management theory: A new perspective on biases in cross-sex mind reading. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hendrick, S., Hendrick, C., Slapion-Foote, M. J., & Foote, F. H. (1985). Gender differences in sexual attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1630–1642.Google Scholar
  76. Henningsen, D. D., Henningsen, M. L. M., & Valde, K. S. (2006). Gender differences in perceptions of women’s sexual interest during cross-sex interactions: An application and extension of cognitive valence theory. Sex Roles, 54, 821–829.Google Scholar
  77. Herold, E. S., & Mewhinney, D. M. K. (1993). Gender differences in casual sex and AIDS prevention: A survey of dating bars. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 36–42.Google Scholar
  78. Hrdy, S. (1981). The woman that never evolved. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. The American Psychologist, 60, 581–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ilardi, S. S., Jacobson, J. D., Lehman, K. A., Stites, B. A., Karwoski, L., Stroupe, N.N., et al. (2007, November). Therapeutic lifestyle change for depression: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  81. Jackson, L. A. (1992). Physical appearance and gender: Sociobiological and sociocultural perspectives. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  82. Jokela, M., Rotkirch, A., Rickard, I. J., Pettay, J., & Lummaa, V. (2010). Serial monogamy increases reproductive success in men but not in women. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 906–912.Google Scholar
  83. Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., Webster, G. D., & Schmitt, D. P. (2009). The Dark Triad: Facilitating short-term mating in men. European Journal of Personality, 23, 5–18.Google Scholar
  84. Jones, J. C., & Barlow, D. H. (1990). Self-reported frequency of sexual urges, fantasies and masturbatory fantasies in heterosexual males and females. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19, 269–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jones, O. D., & Goldsmith, T. H. (2005). Law and Behavioral Biology. Columbia Law Review, 105, 405–502.Google Scholar
  86. Kenrick, D. T., Groth, G. E., Trost, M. R., & Sadalla, E. K. (1993). Integrating evolutionary and social exchange perspectives on relationships: Effects of gender, self-appraisal, and involvement level on mate selection criteria. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 951–969.Google Scholar
  87. Kenrick, D. T., Sadalla, E. K., Groth, G., & Trost, M. R. (1990). Evolution, traits, and the stages of human courtship: Qualifying the parental investment model. Journal of Personality, 58, 97–116.Google Scholar
  88. Koukounas, E., & McCabe, M. (1997). Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 221–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Krieger, R., & Morrison, J. (1967). People are strange [Recorded by The Doors]. On Strange Days [record]. Hollywood, CA: Elektra.Google Scholar
  90. Lalumiere, M. L., Harris, G. T., Quinsey, V. L., & Rice, M. E. (2005). The causes of rape. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  91. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  92. Lawson, A., & Samson, C. (1988). Age, gender and adultery. The British Journal of Sociology, 39, 409–440.Google Scholar
  93. Leitenberg, H., & Henning, K. (1995). Sexual fantasy. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 469–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Li, N. P., Bailey, M. J., Kenrick, D. T., & Linsenmeier, J. A. (2002). The necessities and luxuries of mate preferences: Testing the tradeoffs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 947–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Li, N. P., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Sex similarities and differences in preferences for short-term mates: What, whether, and why. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 468–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Liesen, L. (2010). Feminists, fear not evolutionary theory, but remain very cautious of evolutionary psychology [Review of the book Who’s afraid of Charles Darwin? Debating feminism and evolutionary theory, by G. Vandermassen] Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  97. Lippa, R. A. (2009). Sex differences in sex drive, sociosexuality, and height across 53 nations: Testing evolutionary and social structural theories. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 631–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & Burriss, R. P. (2007). Preferences for masculinity in male bodies change across the menstrual cycle. Hormones and Behavior, 52, 633–639.Google Scholar
  99. Malamuth, N. M. (1996). Sexually explicit media, gender differences, and evolutionary theory. The Journal of Communication, 46, 8–31.Google Scholar
  100. Marlowe, F. W. (2004). Mate preferences among Hadza hunter-gatherers. Human Nature, 15, 365–376.Google Scholar
  101. McBurney, D. H., Zapp, D. J., & Streeter, S. A. (2005). Preferred number of sexual partners: Tails of distributions and tales of mating systems. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 271–278.Google Scholar
  102. McCabe, M. P. (1987). Desired and experienced levels of premarital affection and sexual intercourse during dating. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 23–33.Google Scholar
  103. Mealey, L. (1995). The sociobiology of sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, 523–599.Google Scholar
  104. Mikach, S. M., & Bailey, J. M. (1999). What distinguishes women with unusually high numbers of sex partners? Evolution and Human Behavior, 20, 141–150.Google Scholar
  105. Mitchell, M. M., & Latimer, W. W. (2009). Gender differences in high risk sexual behaviors and injection practices associated with perceived HIV risk among injection drug users. AIDS Education and Prevention, 21, 384–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Murnen, S. K., & Stockton, M. (1997). Gender and self-reported sexual arousal in response to sexual stimuli: A meta-analytic review. Sex Roles, 37, 135–153.Google Scholar
  107. Murstein, B. (1986). Paths to marriage. New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  108. Njus, D. M., & Bane, C. M. H. (2009). Religious identification as a moderator of evolved sexual strategies of men and women. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 546–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Okami, P., & Shackelford, T. K. (2001). Human sex differences in sexual psychology and behavior. Annual Review of Sex Research, 12, 186–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender differences in sexuality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 29–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ostovich, J. M., & Sabini, J. (2004). How are sociosexuality, sex drive, and lifetime number of sexual partners related? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1255–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Park, J. H. (2007). Persistent misunderstandings of inclusive fitness and kin selection: Their ubiquitous appearance in social psychology textbooks. Evolutionary Psychology, 5, 860–873.Google Scholar
  113. Parker, J., & Burkley, M. (2009). Who’s chasing whom? The impact of gender and relationship status on mate poaching. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1016–1019.Google Scholar
  114. Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The causalities of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 639–661.Google Scholar
  115. Pedersen, F. A. (1991). Secular trends in human sex ratios: Their influence on individual and family behavior. Human Nature, 2, 271–291.Google Scholar
  116. Pedersen, W. C., Putch-Bhagavatula, A., & Miller, L. C. (2010). Are men and women really that different? Examining some of Sexual Strategies theory (SST) key assumptions about sex-distinct mating mechanisms. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  117. Penton-Voak, I. S., & Chen, J. Y. (2004). High salivary testosterone is linked to masculine male facial appearance in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 229–241.Google Scholar
  118. Penton-Voak, I. S., Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., Burt, D. M., Tiddeman, B. P., & Perrett, D. I. (2003). Female condition influences preferences for sexual dimorphism in faces of male humans (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 117, 264–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Perilloux, C., Duntley, J. D., & Buss, D. M. (2006). The psychology of sexual victimization: Perceived costs and strategies of prevention. Paper presented at the 4th Annual SPSP, Evolutionary Psychology Pre-Conference, Palm Springs, CA.Google Scholar
  120. Perilloux, H. K., Webster, G. D., & Gaulin, S. J. C. (2010). Signals of genetic quality and maternal investment capacity: The dynamic effects of fluctuating asymmetry and waist-to-hip ratio on men’s ratings of women’s attractiveness. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 34–42.Google Scholar
  121. Perrin, P. B., Heesacker, M., Tiegs, T. J., Swan, L., Lawrence, A. W., Jr., Smith, M. B., et al. (2010). Aligning Mars and Venus: the social construction and instability of gender differences in romantic relationships. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  122. Perusse, D. (1993). Cultural and reproductive success in industrial societies: Testing the relationship at the proximate and ultimate levels. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16, 267–322.Google Scholar
  123. Peters, J., Shackelford, T. K., & Buss, D. M. (2002). Understanding domestic violence against women: Using evolutionary psychology to extend the feminist functional analysis. Violence and Victims, 17, 255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Peters, M., Simmons, L.W., & Rhodes, G. (2009). Preferences across the menstrual cycle for masculinity and symmetry in photographs of male faces and bodies. PloS One, 4, e4138.Google Scholar
  125. Petersen, J. L., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). A meta-analytic review of research on gender differences in sexuality, 1993–2007. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 21–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Purnine, D. M., Carey, M. P., Jorgensen, R. S., & Randall, S. (1994). Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 20, 271–287.Google Scholar
  127. Puts, D. A. (2005). Mating context and menstrual phase affect women’s preferences for male voice pitch. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 388–397.Google Scholar
  128. Regan, P. C. (1998a). Minimum mate selection standards as a function of perceived mate value, relationship context, and gender. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 10, 53–73.Google Scholar
  129. Regan, P. C. (1998b). What if you can’t get what you want? Willingness to compromise ideal mate selection standards as a function of sex, mate value, and relationship context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1294–1303.Google Scholar
  130. Regan, P. C., & Berscheid, E. (1997). Gender differences in characteristics desired in a potential sexual and marriage partner. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 9, 25–37.Google Scholar
  131. Regan, P. C., Levin, L., Sprecher, S., Christopher, F. S., & Cate, R. (2000). Partner preferences: What characteristics do men and women desire in their short-term and long-term romantic partners? Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 12, 1–21.Google Scholar
  132. Roberts, S. C., Havlicek, J., Flegr, J., Hruskova, M., Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., et al. (2004). Female facial attractiveness increases during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, B. (Supplement), S1–S3.Google Scholar
  133. Roese, N. J., Pennington, G. L., Coleman, J., Janicki, M., Li, N. P., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Sex differences in regret: All for love or some for lust? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 770–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rokach, A. (1990). Content analysis of sexual fantasies of males and females. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 124, 427–436.Google Scholar
  135. Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L., & Gray, P. B. (2010). Changes in estradiol predict within-women shifts in attraction to facial cues of men’s testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.10.010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Rowatt, W., & Schmitt, D. P. (2003). Associations between religious orientation and varieties of sexual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 455–465.Google Scholar
  137. Salmon, C., & Symons, D. (2001). Warrior lovers: Erotic fiction, evolution, and female sexuality. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
  138. Schmitt, D. P. (2005a). Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbabwe: A 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 247–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Schmitt, D. P. (2005b). Fundamentals of human mating strategies. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The evolutionary psychology handbook (pp. 258–291). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  140. Schmitt, D. P. (2005c). Is short-term mating the maladaptive result of insecure attachment? A test of competing evolutionary perspectives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 747–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Ault, L., Austers, I., Bennett, K. L., et al. (2003). Universal sex differences in the desire for sexual variety: Tests from 52 nations, 6 continents, and 13 islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 85–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schmitt, D. P., Alcalay, L., Allik, J., Angleiter, A., Ault, L., Austers, I., et al. (2004). Patterns and universals of mate poaching across 53 nations: The effects of sex, culture, and personality on romantically attracting another person’s partner. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 560–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Schmitt, D. P., & Buss, D. M. (1996). Strategic self-enhancement and competitor derogation: Sex and context effects on the perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tactics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1185–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schmitt, D. P., & Buss, D. M. (2001). Human mate poaching: Tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing mateships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 894–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Schmitt, D. P., Couden, A., & Baker, M. (2001). Sex, temporal context, and romantic desire: An experimental evaluation of Sexual Strategies Theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 833–847.Google Scholar
  146. Schmitt, D. P., & Pilcher, J. J. (2004). Evaluating evidence of psychological adaptation: How do we know one when we see one? Psychological Science, 15, 643–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Schützwohl, A., Fuchs, A., McKibbin, W. F., & Shackelford, T. K. (2009). How willing are you to accept sexual requests from slightly unattractive to exceptionally attractive imagined requestors? Human Nature, 20, 282–293.Google Scholar
  148. Sigal, J., Gibbs, M. S., Adams, B., & Derfler, R. (1988). The effect of romantic and nonromantic films on perception of female friendly and seductive behavior. Sex Roles, 19, 545–554.Google Scholar
  149. Silverman, I., Choi, J., & Peters, M. (2007). On the universality of sex-related spatial competencies. Archives of Human Sexuality, 36, 261–268.Google Scholar
  150. Simpson, J. A., Wilson, C. L., & Winterheld, H. A. (2004). Sociosexuality and romantic relationships. In J. H. Harvey, A. Wenzel, & S. Sprecher (Eds.), The handbook of sexuality in close relationships (pp. 87–112). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  151. Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S. W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality: Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 870–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S. W. (1992). Sociosexuality and romantic partner choice. Journal of Personality, 60, 31–51.Google Scholar
  153. Singh, D., & Singh, D. (2011). Shape and significance of feminine beauty: An evolutionary perspective. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  154. Singh, D., & Young, R. K. (1995). Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, breast, and hips: Role of judgments of female attractiveness and desirability for relationships. Ethology & Sociobiology, 16, 483–507.Google Scholar
  155. Smiler, A. P. (2010). Sexual Strategies Theory: Built for the short term or the long term? Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  156. Smith, C. A., Konik, J., & Tuve, M. V. (2010). In search of looks, status, or something else? Partner preferences among butch and femme lesbians and heterosexual men and women. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  157. Smuts, B. B. (1995). The evolutionary origins of patriarchy. Human Nature, 6, 1–32.Google Scholar
  158. Spanier, G. B., & Margolis, R. L. (1983). Marital separation and extramarital sexual behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 19, 23–48.Google Scholar
  159. Stewart, S., Stinnett, H., & Rosenfeld, L. B. (2000). Sex differences in desired characteristics of short-term and long-term relationship partners. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 17, 843–853.Google Scholar
  160. Stone, E. A., Goetz, A. T., & Shackelford, T. K. (2005). Sex differences and similarities in preferred mating arrangements. Sexualities, Evolution & Gender, 7, 269–276.Google Scholar
  161. Surbey, M. K., & Conohan, C. D. (2000). Willingness to engage in casual sex: The role of parental qualities and perceived risk of aggression. Human Nature, 11, 367–386.Google Scholar
  162. Sugiyama, L. (2005). Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 292–342). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  163. Sylwester, K., & Pawlowski, B. (2010). Daring to be darling: Attractiveness of risk takers as partners in long- and short-term sexual relationships. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  164. Symons, D. (1979). The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Symons, D. (1987). If we’re all Darwinians, what’s the fuss about? In C. Crawford, D. Krebs, & M. Smith (Eds.), Sociobiology and psychology (pp. 121–146). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  166. Tate, C. (2010). The “problem of number” revisited: The relative contributions of psychosocial, experiential, and evolutionary factors to the desired number of sexual partners. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  167. Thompson, A. P. (1983). Extramarital sex: A review of the research literature. Journal of Sex Research, 19, 1–22.Google Scholar
  168. Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (2008). The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  169. Thornhill, R., & Palmer, C. (2000). A natural history of rape. Cambridge: MIT.Google Scholar
  170. Tinbergen, N. (1963). On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410–433.Google Scholar
  171. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (1992). Psychological foundations of culture. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby (Eds.), The adapted mind (pp. 19–136). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  172. Tooby, J., & Cosmides, L. (2005). Conceptual foundations of evolutionary psychology. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 5–67). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  173. Townsend, J. M., Kline, J., & Wasserman, T. H. (1995). Low investment copulation: sex difference in motivations and emotional reactions. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16, 25–51.Google Scholar
  174. Trivers, R. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of man: 1871-1971 (pp. 136–179). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  175. Tybur, J. M., Miller, G. F., & Gangestad, S. W. (2007). Testing the controversy: An empirical examination of adaptationists’ attitudes towards politics and science. Human Nature, 18, 313–328.Google Scholar
  176. Vandermassen, G. (2005). Who’s afraid of Charles Darwin? Debating feminism and evolutionary theory. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  177. Vandermassen, G. (2010). Evolution and rape: A feminist Darwinian perspective. Sex Roles, this issue.Google Scholar
  178. Voracek, M., Fisher, M. L., Hofhansl, A., Rekkas, P. V., & Ritthammer, N. (2006). 'I find you to be very attractive…' Biases in compliance estimates to sexual offers. Psicothema, 18, 384–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Voracek, M., Hofhansl, A., & Fisher, M. L. (2005). Clark and Hatfield’s evidence of women’s low receptivity to male strangers’ sexual offers revisited. Psychological Reports, 97, 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Vasey, P. L., & VanderLaan, D. P. (2010). Avuncular tendencies and the evolution of male androphilia in Fa’afafine. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 821–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wiederman, M. W. (1997). Extramarital sex: Prevalence and correlates in a national survey. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 167–174.Google Scholar
  182. Wiederman, M. W., & Dubois, S. L. (1998). Evolution and sex differences in preferences for short-term mates: Results from a policy capturing study. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19, 153–170.Google Scholar
  183. Wilcox, R. R. (2003). Applying contemporary statistical techniques. San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  184. Williams, G. C. (1975). Sex and evolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  185. Wilson, M., & Mesnick, S. L. (1997). An empirical test of the bodyguard hypothesis. In P. A. Gowaty (Ed.), Feminism and evolutionary biology: Boundaries, intersections, and frontiers. New York: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  186. Wolf, N. (1991). The beauty myth. New York: Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  187. Youn, G. (2006). Subjective sexual arousal in response to erotica: Effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus, and duration of exposure. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 87–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Zerjal, T., Xue, Y., Bertorelle, G., Wells, R. S., Bao, W., Zhu, S., et al. (2003). The genetic legacy of the Mongols. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 717–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TexasAustinUSA
  2. 2.Bradley UniversityPeoriaUSA

Personalised recommendations