Sex Roles

, Volume 65, Issue 7–8, pp 518–532

Tests of Objectification Theory in Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Community Samples: Mixed Evidence for Proposed Pathways

  • Renee Engeln-Maddox
  • Steven A. Miller
  • David Matthew Doyle
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9958-8

Cite this article as:
Engeln-Maddox, R., Miller, S.A. & Doyle, D.M. Sex Roles (2011) 65: 518. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9958-8


Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) proposes that women are especially vulnerable to eating disordered behavior when they live in cultures in which their bodies are a constant focus of evaluation. The current study examined whether predictions of objectification theory involving the associations among sexual objectification, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disordered behavior were supported in groups that varied by both gender and sexual orientation. Adults from a U.S. community sample in the Chicago area (92 heterosexual women; 102 heterosexual men; 87 gay men; and 99 lesbian women) completed self-report measures of these constructs. Results suggest that group differences in experiences of sexual objectification and body surveillance may partially explain gender and sexual orientation-based differences in eating disordered behavior.


Objectification theory Sexual orientation Body image Gender differences 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Renee Engeln-Maddox
    • 1
  • Steven A. Miller
    • 2
  • David Matthew Doyle
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PsychologyArgosy UniversityChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyTulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

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