Sex Roles

, Volume 64, Issue 3–4, pp 276–289 | Cite as

Content Analysis—A Methodological Primer for Gender Research

  • Kimberly A. NeuendorfEmail author
Original Article


This article is intended to serve as a primer on methodological standards for gender scholars pursuing content analytic research. The scientific underpinnings of the method are explored, including the roles of theory, past research, population definition, objectivity/intersubjectivity, reliability, validity, generalizability, and replicability. Both human coding and computer coding are considered. The typical process of human-coded content analysis is reviewed, including the steps of unitizing, sampling, measurement, coder training, reliability assessment, and reportage of methods. Numerous applications to research on gender roles and related issues are reviewed. Practical checklists are offered for content analysis preparation and methodological execution.


Content analysis Methodological standards Gender research Gender roles 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of CommunicationCleveland State UniversityClevelandUSA

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