Gender Stereotypes Depicted by Western and Korean Advertising Models in Korean Adolescent Girls’ Magazines
- 2.9k Downloads
Using content analysis based on Goffman’s (1979) typology, the authors examined gender role stereotypes in Korean fashion magazines targeting adolescent girls. Korean women were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group as smiling, pouting, and with a childlike or cute expression. On the other hand, Western women were more stereotypically portrayed than any other group in the categories of licensed withdrawal and body display. In some categories, male models were more female-stereotypically portrayed than female models of a particular race. Implications of the findings, future research suggestions, and limitations of the current study are discussed.
KeywordsGender stereotypes Advertising Race Adolescent girls Goffman
We are grateful to the editor and anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback and insightful suggestions which greatly improved this article.
- Bandura, A. J. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Halls.Google Scholar
- Browne, B. A. (1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children’s television in the 1990s: A cross-national analysis. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 83–96.Google Scholar
- Cheng, H. (1997). ‘Holding up half of the sky’? A sociocultural comparison of gender-role portrayals in Chinese and US advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 16, 295–319.Google Scholar
- Cho, B., Kwon, U., Gentry, J. W., Jun, S., & Kropp, F. (1999). Cultural values reflected in theme and execution: A comparative study of US and Korean television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 28(4), 59–74.Google Scholar
- Choi, J. S. (1985). 한국가족연구 [Research on Korean family structure]. Seoul: Iljisa.Google Scholar
- Ford, J. B., Voli, P. K., Honeycutt, E. D., & Casey, S. L. (1998). Gender role portrayals in Japanese advertising: A magazine content analysis. Journal of Advertising, 27(1), 113–124.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (1993). Visions of self: Beyond the me in the mirror. In J. E. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 40 (pp. 99–144). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
- Klassen, M. L., Jasper, C. R., & Schwartz, A. M. (1993). Men and women: Images of their relationships in magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research, 33(2), 30–39.Google Scholar
- KOBACO. (2002). 소비자 행태 조사 [Media & consumer research]. Retrieved from http://www.kobaco.co.kr.
- Korean National Statistical Office. (2008). Korean Statistical Information Service. Retrieved from http://www.kosis.kr.
- Lazier, L., & Kendrick, A. G. (1993). Women in advertisements: Sizing up the images, roles and functions. In P. J. Creedon (Ed.), Women in mass communication (pp. 199–219). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Lee, W. (2001, Novemeber). 광고효과와 광고모델: 외국인모델 광고 [Advertising effects and advertising model: Foreign advertising models]. 광고정보 [Ad Information], 62–68.Google Scholar
- Lee, D., & Kim, H. (1995). 잡지광고의 여성역할 이미지 및 그 변천에 관한 내용분석 [Content analysis on stereotypical female images in magazine advertising and their changes]. 광고연구 [Advertising Research], 26, 7–53.Google Scholar
- Martin, M. C., & Gentry, J. W. (1997). Stuck in the model trap: The effects of beautiful models in ads on female pre-adolescents and adolescents. Journal of Advertising, 26(2), 19–33.Google Scholar
- Maynard, M. L., & Taylor, C. R. (1999). Girlish images across cultures: Analyzing Japanese versus U.S. seventeen magazine ads. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 39–48.Google Scholar
- Nam, K. (2004). 한국 TV광고에 나타나는 젠더표상 [Gender displays represented in Korean TV advertising]. 한국광고홍보학보 [Korean Journal of Advertising and Public Relations], 6(2), 7–47.Google Scholar
- Schudson, M. (1984). Advertising, the uneasy persuasion. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Sengupta, S. (1995). The influence of culture on portrayals of women in television commercials: A comparison between the United States and Japan. International Journal of Advertising, 14, 314–333.Google Scholar
- Song, J. (1991). 잡지광고에 나타난 여성상 비교연구 [Comparative inquiry on female images in magazine advertising]. 광고연구 [Advertising Research], 10, 119–145.Google Scholar
- Stern, B. B. (1999). Gender and multicultural issues in advertising: Stages on the research highway. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
- Wiles, C. R., & Tjernlund, A. (1991). A comparison of role portrayal of men and women in magazine advertising in the USA and Sweden. International Journal of Advertising, 10, 259–267.Google Scholar
- Won, C. K. (1994). Overcoming Confucian barriers: Changing educational opportunities for women in Korea. In J. Gelb & M. L. Palley (Eds.), Women of Japan and Korea: Continuity and change (pp. 206–222). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar