Sex Roles

, Volume 64, Issue 3–4, pp 192–207

Examination of Gender-role Portrayals in Television Advertising across Seven Countries

  • Hye-Jin Paek
  • Michelle R. Nelson
  • Alexandra M. Vilela
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11199-010-9850-y

Cite this article as:
Paek, HJ., Nelson, M.R. & Vilela, A.M. Sex Roles (2011) 64: 192. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9850-y


This study examined the roles of cultural (Hofstede’s Masculinity value dimension—i.e., Gender of Nations), country-level (Gender-related Development Index), and execution-level (product type or gender of the typical user) factors in understanding gender-role portrayals in television advertising. Using content analysis methodology, we compared the gender and occupation of the prominent character and the gender of the voice-over across 2,608 television commercials in Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, South Korea, Thailand, and the United States. Results of regression analyses revealed that cultural and country factors predicted the gender of the voice-over only whereas product type consistently conformed with the gender of the prominent character. Overall, males were featured in prominent visual and auditory roles, while females were still portrayed in stereotypical ways.


Gender-role portrayals Advertising Masculinity (MAS) cultural value dimension Gender-related Development Index (GDI) Cross-cultural research 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hye-Jin Paek
    • 1
  • Michelle R. Nelson
    • 2
  • Alexandra M. Vilela
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Advertising, Public Relations, and Retailing, College of Communication Arts & ScienceMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of AdvertisingUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mass Communication & Communication StudiesTowson UniversityTowsonUSA

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