Sex Roles

, Volume 62, Issue 9–10, pp 670–683 | Cite as

Henry the Nurse is a Doctor Too: Implicitly Examining Children’s Gender Stereotypes for Male and Female Occupational Roles

  • Makeba Parramore WilbournEmail author
  • Daniel W. Kee
Original Article


Eagly’s social role theory (Eagly and Steffen 1984) was tested examining children’s gender role stereotypes via implicit information processing and memory measures. We explored whether children’s occupational stereotypes were less restrictive for females who engaged in counterstereotypic occupations (Mary-Doctor) compared to males who engaged in counterstereotypic occupations (Henry-Nurse). Fifty-seven American eight- and nine-year-olds from a southwestern city were orally presented with stereotypic male and female names paired with masculine and feminine occupations and asked to create sentences using the name-occupation pairs. We conducted analyses of the created sentences as well as tested children’s memories for the various pairings. Consistent with social role theory, the findings revealed that children’s gender role stereotypes were more restrictive for males, than for females.


Children Gender role stereotypes Social role theory Occupational roles Implicit measures Knowledge base access Memory 



We wish to express our sincerest appreciation of Christy Ake, Allie Gregory, Julie Ann Hwang, Kyrstle Barrera, Jui Bhagwat, Paula Daneri, and Alana Bennett for data coding. In addition, we would like to sincerely thank Cate Taylor, Jui Bhagwat, Vrinda Kalia, Stephanie Martinez, and Tianlun (Tony) Jiang for their suggestions on previous drafts of the manuscript. We are also greatly indebted to Margaret Signorella as well as an anonymous reviewer for their invaluable and extensive comments and suggestions that greatly improved the manuscript. Finally, we would also like to acknowledge Michele Johnson and the third-grade students that participated in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Makeba Parramore Wilbourn, Department of Psychology and NeuroscienceDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State UniversityFullertonUSA

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