Assessing Gender-Related Portrayals in Top-Grossing G-Rated Films
- 5.3k Downloads
The purpose of this content analysis was to examine gender-related portrayals in popular G-rated films. Our research questions addressed the prevalence and nature of males and females in general-audience fare. To answer our research queries, 101 of the top-grossing box office films released theatrically in the United States and Canada from 1990 to early 2005 were assessed. The results showed that males outnumber females by a ratio of 2.57 to 1, which has not changed in fifteen years. Females were more likely than males to be young and depicted traditionally. In terms of personality traits, females were more likely to be smart, good, and beautiful than were males.
KeywordsContent analysis Gender Stereotype Children’s films
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Barry, D. (2002, January 30). Disney encourages old-fashioned women. Polytechnic Online. Retrieved from http://www.poly.rpi.edu/article_view.php3?view=1173&part=1.
- BBC News (2002, July 5). Female film makers ‘face struggle.’ BBC News. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/2098046.stm.
- Calvert, S. (1999). Children’s journeys through the information age. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Calvert, S., Stolkin, A., & Lee, J. (1997). Gender and ethnic portrayals in Saturday morning television programs. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Daily, M., & Burke, A. (2004). Battling hollywood sexism: Women filmmakers break down barriers. UCLA Today, 24 (10). Retrieved from http://www.today.ucla.edu/2004/040224closeup_women.html.
- Dobrow, J. R. (1990). The rerun ritual: Using VCRs to re-view. In J. R. Dobrow (Ed.), Social and cultural aspects of VCR use (pp. 181–193). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dorr, A. (1983). No shortcuts to judging reality. In J. Bryant & D. Anderson (Eds.), Children’s understanding of television (pp. 199–220). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
- Faherty, V. E. (2001). Is the mouse sensitive? A study of race, gender, and social vulnerability in Disney animated films [Electronic Version]. Studies in Media & Information Literacy Education, 1(3). Retrieved from http://www.utpjournals.com/jour.ihtml?lp=simile/issue3/fahertyfulltext.html.
- Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Forbes (2007, August 30). The 100 most powerful women. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/lists/2007/11/biz-07women_The-100-Most-Powerful-Women_Rank_2.html.
- Goldberg, M. (2002, September 8). Women on the verge: Chick flicks are big box-office but female directors can’t get work. If you want to make movies it pays to be a man. The Observer. Retrieved from http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/printdoc.
- Goodale, G. (2000, June 9). Still a man’s world. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved from http://www.csmonitor.com/atcsmonitor/specials/women/arts/arts060900.html.
- Girls, G. (2003). Bitches, bimbos, and ballbreakers: The Guerrilla Girls’ illustrated guide to female stereotypes. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Hass, N. (2005, April 24). Hollywood’s new old girls’ network. New York Times. Retrieved from http://web.lexis.com/universe/printdoc.
- Herrett-Skjellum, J., & Allen, M. (1996). Television programming and sex-stereotyping: A meta-analysis. Communication Yearbook, 19, 157–185.Google Scholar
- Hoerrner, K. L. (1996). Gender roles in Disney films: analyzing behaviors from Snow White to Simba. Women’s Studies in Communication, 19, 213–228.Google Scholar
- Hoffner, C. (1996). Children’s wishful identification and parasocial interaction with favorite television characters. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 40, 389–402.Google Scholar
- Hoffner, C., & Cantor, J. (1991). Perceiving and responding to mass media characters. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Responding to the screen: Reception and reaction processes (pp. 63–101). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Huston, A. C. (1983). Sex typing. In E. M. Hetherington & P. H. Mussen (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp. 387–467). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Kaiser Family Foundation. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Menlo Park: Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
- Kimball, M. M. (1986). Television and sex-role attitudes. In T. M. Williams (Ed.), The impact of television: A natural experiment in three communities (pp. 265–301). Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
- Miller, M. M., & Reeves, B. (1976). Dramatic TV content and children’s sex-role stereotypes. Journal of Broadcasting, 20, 35–50.Google Scholar
- Perloff, R. M. (1977). Some antecedents of children’s sex-role stereotypes. Psychological Reports, 40, 463–466.Google Scholar
- Reeves, B., & Miller, M. M. (1978). A multidimensional measure of children's identification with television characters. Journal of Broadcasting, 22, 71–86.Google Scholar
- See Jane. (2005). Improving portrayals of girls and women in children’s media. Retrieved from http://www.seejane.org.
- Shreve, J. (1997, September 25). Dissing Disney. Metroactive. Retrieved from http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/09.25.97/disney-9739.html.
- Smith, S. M., McIntosh, W. D., & Bazzini, D. G. (1999). Are the beautiful good in Hollywood? An investigation of the beauty-and-goodness stereotype on film. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 69–80.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. L., Choueiti, M., Granados, A., & Erickson, S. (2008). Asymmetrical academy awards? A look at gender imbalance in best picture nominated films from 1977 to 2006. Unpublished data.Google Scholar
- Sparks, G. G., & Cantor, J. C. (1986). Developmental differences in fright responses to a television program depicting a character transformation. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 30, 309–323.Google Scholar
- Sundaram, S., & Williams, H. J. (2005). Profitability study of MPAA-rated movies. Grand Rapids: Dove.Google Scholar
- Wilson, B. J., Cantor, J., Gordon, L., & Zillmann, D. (1986). Affective response of nonretarded and retarded children to the emotions of a protagonist. Child Study Journal, 16, 77–93.Google Scholar
- Wilson, B. J., Kunkel, D., Linz, D., Potter, W. J., Donnerstein, E., Smith, S. L., et al. (1997). Violence in television programming overall: University of California, Santa Barbara Study. National television violence study (Vol. 1, pp. 3–268). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar