Sex Roles

, Volume 61, Issue 3–4, pp 221–234 | Cite as

Family Patterns of Gender Role Attitudes

  • Jaime L. Marks
  • Chun Bun Lam
  • Susan M. McHaleEmail author
Original Article


Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents’ time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict.


Gender Family systems Socialization Child effects 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaime L. Marks
    • 1
  • Chun Bun Lam
    • 1
  • Susan M. McHale
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Health and Human Development, Human Development and Family StudiesThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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