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Adaptation of Marketing Activities to Cultural and Social Context: Gender Role Portrayals and Sexism in Spanish Commercials


This study was designed to examine the portrayal of men and women in a sample of 370 Spanish television commercials. The general objective was to compare and contrast the plurality and similarities between men and women as regards both gender role portrayals and sexism levels and also product stereotyping as the association of certain kinds of products with gender. In addition, we examined the type of social relationship held by the main actor/actress in the commercial. Applying content analysis methodology, the results highlight a feminine culture and a social reality moving steadily toward gender equality and complementariness between genders, albeit still within the framework of the traditional family model, which characterizes women as homemakers and mothers.

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Correspondence to Marcelo Royo-Vela.

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Impact of Cultural and Social Reality on Marketing Activities: Gender Role Portrayals and Sexism in Spanish Commercials.

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Royo-Vela, M., Aldas-Manzano, J., Küster, I. et al. Adaptation of Marketing Activities to Cultural and Social Context: Gender Role Portrayals and Sexism in Spanish Commercials. Sex Roles 58, 379–390 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9341-y

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  • Content analysis
  • Spanish commercials
  • Stereotypes
  • Sexism
  • Gender role