Hidden Sexism: Facial Prominence and Its Connections to Gender and Occupational Status in Popular Print Media
- 1.2k Downloads
A total of 779 article-embedded photographs from six popular US magazines during 2004 (Newsweek, Time, Fortune, Money, People, and Sports Illustrated) were examined assessing the relationship between occupational status and gender and the depiction of men and women in print media. Results show individuals depicted in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than individuals depicted in physically focused occupations. Gender differences in facial prominence did not reach significance. A gender by occupation interaction indicated men in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than women in similar professions, whereas women in physical occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than men in similar occupations. This suggests a disparity in the media with regard to displaying men and women equally in similar occupational roles.
KeywordsFacial prominence Occupational status Media Gender
The author would like to thank Constance Jones, Robert Levine, and Paul Price for their assistance with this research, and Teenie Matlock for her editorial assistance. I would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on this research. This research was conducted as partial fulfillment of a Master’s degree at the California State University, Fresno.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.Google Scholar
- Dodd, D. K., Harcar, V., Foerch, B. J., & Anderson, H. T. (1989). Face-ism and facial expressions of women in magazine photos. The Psychological Record, 39, 325–331.Google Scholar
- Duncan, M. C., & Sayaovong, A. (1990). Photographic images and gender in Sports Illustrated for Kids. Play and Culture, 3, 91–116.Google Scholar
- Forbesmedia.com–Forbes rates (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://forbesmedia.com/forbes/forbrates.php.
- Fortune/FSB media kit (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://www.fortune.com/fortune/mediakit/rates-NorthAm.html.
- Lifestages fidelity circulation of Time magazine (2004). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://www.time-planner.com/planner/circulation/circulation_content.html.
- Miller, S. H. (1975). The content of news photos: Women’s and men’s roles. Journalism Quarterly, 52, 70–75.Google Scholar
- Money...demographics (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://www.moneymediakit.com/moneymktg/Demographics.html.
- Newsweek media kit (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://www.newsweekmediakit.com/newsite/us/editions/national.shtml.
- People Magazine rate card ’05 (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://people.aol.com/people/web/adinfo/ratecard.pdf.
- Sexton, D. E., & Haberman, P. (1974). Women in magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising Research, 14, 41–46.Google Scholar
- Sparks, G. G., & Fehlner, C. L. (1986, Autumn). Faces in the news: Gender comparisons of magazine photos. Journal of Communication, 70–79.Google Scholar
- Sports Illustrated rate card no. 63 (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/adinfo/si/2005RateCard63.pdf.
- U.S. News and World Report 2005 media kit: Audience profiles (2005). Retrieved January 27, 2005 from http://www.usnews.com/usnews/media/print/2005_audience_profile.htm.
- Venkatesan, M., & Losco, J. (1975). Women in magazine ads: 1959–71. Journal of Advertising Research, 15, 49–55.Google Scholar