Sex Roles

, Volume 57, Issue 7–8, pp 515–525 | Cite as

Hidden Sexism: Facial Prominence and Its Connections to Gender and Occupational Status in Popular Print Media

  • Justin L. Matthews
Original Article


A total of 779 article-embedded photographs from six popular US magazines during 2004 (Newsweek, Time, Fortune, Money, People, and Sports Illustrated) were examined assessing the relationship between occupational status and gender and the depiction of men and women in print media. Results show individuals depicted in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than individuals depicted in physically focused occupations. Gender differences in facial prominence did not reach significance. A gender by occupation interaction indicated men in intellectually focused occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than women in similar professions, whereas women in physical occupations had higher face-to-body ratios than men in similar occupations. This suggests a disparity in the media with regard to displaying men and women equally in similar occupational roles.


Facial prominence Occupational status Media Gender 



The author would like to thank Constance Jones, Robert Levine, and Paul Price for their assistance with this research, and Teenie Matlock for her editorial assistance. I would also like to thank two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments on this research. This research was conducted as partial fulfillment of a Master’s degree at the California State University, Fresno.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyCalifornia State University, FresnoFresnoUSA
  2. 2.School of Social Sciences, Humanities, and ArtsUniversity of California, MercedMercedUSA

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