Sex Roles

, Volume 57, Issue 5–6, pp 329–339 | Cite as

Gender Differences in Virtual Negotiation: Theory and Research

  • Alice F. Stuhlmacher
  • Maryalice Citera
  • Toni Willis
Original Article


Social roles create conflicting behavioral expectations for female negotiators; however, virtual negotiations reduce social pressures. This paper reviews theoretical explanations on why men and women might differ in negotiations that occur through email, telephone, or video. Forty-three negotiation studies comparing face-to-face and virtual negotiations were examined for gender differences. All studies were reported in English but not limited to US participants. While many reports omitted gender information, meta-analytic findings supported the prediction that women would be more hostile in virtual compared to face-to-face negotiations, as well as finding no hostility difference for men between virtual and face-to-face negotiations. While negotiators overall were more successful face-to-face than virtually, results separated by gender did not find this effect.


E-mail Gender Negotiation Social Roles Virtual Negotiation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alice F. Stuhlmacher
    • 1
  • Maryalice Citera
    • 2
  • Toni Willis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDePaul UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.SUNY—New PaltzNew PaltzUSA

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