Gender Role Beliefs and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men in Chile and the U.S.
We compared the relationship between gender role beliefs and antigay prejudice in Chile and the United States. Participants were Chilean and American university students. In Study 1, Chileans were more prejudiced than Americans, and men were more prejudiced than women. In Study 2, gender role beliefs mediated cultural and sex differences in prejudice. Chileans held more traditional gender role beliefs and were more antigay than Americans. Men were more prejudiced than women, particularly in their attitudes toward gay men. Further, sex differences in attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were completely mediated by gender role beliefs. Nationality differences in attitudes toward lesbians were completely mediated, and nationality differences in attitudes toward gay men were partially mediated, by gender role beliefs.
KeywordsGender roles Prejudice Cross-cultural Sex differences
- Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
- Fuller, N. (1998). Reflexiones sobre el machismo en América Latina [Reflections on machismo in Latin America]. In T. Valdés & J. Olavarría (Eds.), Masculinidades y Equidad de Género en América Latina (pp. 258–266). Santiago, Chile: FLACSO-Chile.Google Scholar
- Herek, G. M. (1993a). On heterosexual masculinity: Some psychical consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality. In L. Garnets & D. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experience (pp. 316–330). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Herek, G. M. (1993b). The context of antigay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism. In L. Garnets & D. Kimmel (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on lesbian and gay male experiences (pp. 90–107). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Herek, G. M. (1994). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A review of empirical research with the ATLG scale. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 206–228). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Kerr, P. S., & Holden, R. R. (1996). Development of the gender-role beliefs scale (GRBS). Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(5), 3–16.Google Scholar
- Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
- Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E. (1998). Do heterosexual men and women differ in their attitudes toward homosexuality? A conceptual and methodological analysis. In G. M. Herek (Ed.), Stigma and sexual orientation: Understanding prejudice against lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (pp. 39–61). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Sears, J. T. (1998). The impact of culture and ideology on the construction of gender and sexual identities: Developing a critically based sexuality curriculum. In H.S. Shapiro & D.E. Purpel (Eds.), Critical social issues in American education: Transformation in a postmodern world (2nd ed., pp. 213–229). Mahwah, N. J.: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology 1982 (pp. 290–312). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.Google Scholar
- United Nations Human Development Report (2004). Human development indicators. Gender empowerment measure (GEM). Retrieved October 9, 2006 from http://hdr.undp.org/docs/statistics/indices/index_tables.pdf.
- United Nations Statistics Division (2005). Statistical databases. Statistics and indicators on women and men. Table 5f. Women administrative and managerial workers. Retrieved October 9, 2006 from http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm/ww2005/tab5f.htm.