Sex Roles

, Volume 56, Issue 5–6, pp 397–402 | Cite as

Predictors of Media Effects on Body Dissatisfaction in European American Women

  • Emily A. Hamilton
  • Laurie Mintz
  • Susan Kashubeck-WestEmail author
Brief Report


This study involved a sample of 81 European American women viewing either appearance-related or non-appearance-related magazine advertisements. Participants completed measures of demographics and objectified body consciousness prior to viewing these images and a measure of body dissatisfaction prior to and after viewing the images. Body dissatisfaction scores worsened after viewing images of women who exemplified cultural standards of the thin beauty ideal. Neither objectified body consciousness nor body mass index predicted degree of change in body dissatisfaction after viewing the images. In other words, the impact of viewing the images was the same for all women, despite varying body mass index levels and varied degrees of objectified body consciousness. Implications are discussed.


Body image Body consciousness Media images 


  1. Cattarin, J. A., & Thompson, J. K. (1994). A three-year longitudinal study of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in adolescent females. Eating Disorders, 2, 114–125.Google Scholar
  2. Franzoi, S. L. (1994). Further evidence of the reliability and validity of the Body Esteem Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 237–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Franzoi, S. L., & Herzog, M. E. (1986). The Body Esteem Scale: A convergent and discriminant validity study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Franzoi, S. L., & Shields, S. A. (1984). The Body Esteem Scale: Multidimensional structure and sex differences in a college population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 173–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fredrickson, B., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Groesz, L. M., Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). The effect of experimental manipulation of the thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytical review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 3, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harrison, K. (2003). Television viewers’ ideal body proportions: The case of the curvaceously thin woman. Sex Roles, 48, 255–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Milkie, M. A. (1999). Societal comparisons, reflected appraisals, and mass media: The impact of pervasive beauty images on Black and White girls self concepts. Social Psychology Quarterly, 62, 190–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Morry, M., & Staska, S. (2002). Magazine exposure: Internalization, self-objectification, eating attitudes, and body satisfaction in male and female university students. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 33, 269–279.Google Scholar
  11. National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults (NIH Publication No. 98-4083). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  12. Posavac, H., Posavac, S., & Weigel, R. (2001). Reducing the impact of media images for women at risk for body image disturbance: Three targeted interventions. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 324–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.Google Scholar
  14. Shaw, J., & Waller, G. (1996). The media’s impact on body image: Implications for prevention and treatment. Eating Disorders, 3, 115–123.Google Scholar
  15. Stice, E. (2001). Risk factors for eating pathology: Recent advances and future directions. In R. H. Striegel-Moore, & L. Smolak (Eds.), Eating disorders: Innovative directions in research and practice (pp. 51–73). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Tiggemann, M. (2001). Person*situation interactions in body dissatisfaction. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29, 65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Thompson, J. K., & Heinberg, L. J. (1999). The media’s influence on body image disturbance and eating disorders: We’ve reviled them, now can we rehabilitate them? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wiseman, C. F., Gray, J. J., Mosimann, J. E., & Ahrens, A. H. (1992). Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 85–89.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emily A. Hamilton
    • 1
  • Laurie Mintz
    • 1
  • Susan Kashubeck-West
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Educational, School, and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of Missouri-ColumbiaColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Division of Counseling & Family Therapy, College of EducationUniversity of Missouri-St. LouisSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations