Sex Roles

, Volume 56, Issue 5–6, pp 365–372

Using Social Cognitive Career Theory to Understand Head Coaching Intentions among Assistant Coaches of Women’s Teams

  • George B. Cunningham
  • Alison J. Doherty
  • Melanie J. Gregg
Original Article

Abstract

In an effort to understand the under-representation of women in coaching, social cognitive career theory was used to examine the influence of sex on the head coaching intentions, and antecedents to those intentions, among male and female assistant coaches of women’s teams. Data were collected from 66 assistant coaches who represent 15 different sports within the Ontario University Athletics league. A multivariate analysis of variance, followed up by univariate analyses, revealed that men, relative to women, had greater head coaching self-efficacy, anticipated more positive outcomes associated with being a head coach, and possessed greater interest in becoming, and intentions to become, a head coach. Results are discussed in terms of how they help to explain, at least partially, the under-representation of women as head coaches of women’s teams.

Keywords

Coaching Diversity Social cognitive career theory 

References

  1. Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (2006). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal study—twenty nine year update—1977–2006. Manuscript, Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154–196). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective self-efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9(3), 75–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cunningham, G. B., Bruening, J., Sartore, M. L., Sagas, M., & Fink, J. S. (2005). The application of social cognitive career theory to sport and leisure career choices. Journal of Career Development, 32, 122–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2002). The differential effects of human capital for male and female Division I basketball coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 489–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2003). Treatment discrimination among coaches of women’s teams. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 455–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cunningham, G. B., Sagas, M., & Ashley, F. B. (2003). Coaching self-efficacy, desire to head coach, and occupational turnover intent: Gender differences between NCAA assistant coaches of women’s teams. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 34, 125–137.Google Scholar
  10. Danylchuk, K. E., & MacLean, J. (2001). Intercollegiate athletics in Canadian universities: Perspectives on the future. Journal of Sport Management, 15, 364–379.Google Scholar
  11. DeHass, D. (2004). 2003–04 Race and gender demographics of NCAA member institutions’ athletics personnel. Indianapolis, IN: National Collegiate Athletic Association.Google Scholar
  12. Doherty, A. J., & Johnson, S. (2001). Development of scales to measure cognitive and contextual influences on coaching entry. Avante, 7(3), 41–60.Google Scholar
  13. Everhart, B. C., & Chelladurai, P. (1998). Gender differences in preferences for coaching as an occupation: The role of self-efficacy, valence, and perceived barriers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 188–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Feltz, D. L., Chase, M. A., Mortiz, S. E., & Sullivan, P. J. (1999). A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 765–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferry, T. R., Fouad, N. A., & Smith, P. L. (2000). The role of family context in a social cognitive model for career-related choice behavior: A math and science perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57, 348–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Flores, L. Y., & O’Brien, K. M. (2002). The career development of Mexican American adolescent women: A test of social cognitive career theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49, 14–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fouad, M. A., & Smith, P. L. (1996). A test of a social cognitive model for middle school students: Math and science. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 338–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gainor, K. A., & Lent, R. W. (1998). Social cognitive expectations and racial identity attitudes in predicting the math choice intentions of Black college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45, 403–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2001). The influence of self-efficacy and past behavior on the physical activity intentions of young people. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 711–725.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002). A meta-analytic review of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in physical activity: Predictive validity and the contribution of additional variables. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 24, 3–32.Google Scholar
  22. Hart, B. A., Hasbrook, C. A., & Mathes, S. A. (1986). An examination of the reduction in the number of female interscholastic coaches. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 57, 68–77.Google Scholar
  23. Inglis, S., Danylchuk, K. E., & Pastore, D. (1996). Understanding retention factors in coaching and athletic management positions. Journal of Sport Management, 10, 237–249.Google Scholar
  24. Inglis, S., Danylchuk, K. E., & Pastore, D. L. (2000). Multiple realities of women’s work experiences in coaching and athletic management. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 9(2), 1–27.Google Scholar
  25. Kane, M. J., & Stangl, J. M. (1991). Employment patterns of female coaches in men’s athletics: Tokenism and marginalization as reflections of occupational sex-segregation. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 15, 21–41.Google Scholar
  26. Knoppers, A. (1992). Explaining male dominance and sex segregation in coaching: Three approaches. Quest, 44, 210–227.Google Scholar
  27. Knoppers, A., Meyer, B. B., Ewing, M., & Forrest, L. (1991). Opportunity and work behaviour in college coaching. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 10, 1–20.Google Scholar
  28. Knoppers, A., Meyer, B. B., Ewing, M., & Forrest, L. (1993). Gender ratio and social interaction among college coaches. Sociology of Sport Journal, 10, 256–269.Google Scholar
  29. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., Brenner, B., Chopra, S. B., Davis, T., Talleyrand, R., et al. (2001). The role of contextual supports and barriers in the choice of math/science educational options: A test of social cognitive hypotheses. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48, 474–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2000). Contextual supports and barriers to career choice: A social cognitive analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D. Schmidt, J., Brenner, B., Lyons, H., & Treistman, D. (2003). Relation of contextual supports and barriers to choice behavior in engineering majors: Test of alternative social cognitive models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 458–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lent, R. W., & Hackett, G. (1987). Career self-efficacy: Empirical status and future directions. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 30, 347–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lopez, F. G., Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Gore, P. A. (1997). Role of social-cognitive expectations in high school students’ mathematics-related interest and performance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 44, 44–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lovett, D. J., & Lowry, C. D. (1994). “Good old boys” and “good old girls” clubs: Myth or reality? Journal of Sport Management, 8, 27–35.Google Scholar
  36. Sagas, M., & Cunningham, G. B. (2004). Does having the “right stuff” matter? Gender differences in the determinants of career success among intercollegiate athletic administrators. Sex Roles, 50, 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sagas, M., Cunningham, G. B., & Ashley, F. B. (2000). Examining the women’s coaching deficit through the perspective of assistant coaches. International Journal of Sport Management, 1, 267–282.Google Scholar
  38. Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stangl, J. M., & Kane, M. J. (1991). Structural variables that offer explanatory power for the underrepresentation of women coaches since Title IX: The case of homologous reproduction. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, 47–60.Google Scholar
  40. Stroh, L. K., Langlands, C. L., & Simpson, P. A. (2004). Shattering the glass ceiling in the new millennium. In M. S. Stockdale & F. J. Crosby (Eds.), The psychology and management of workplace diversity (pp. 147–167). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  41. Sullivan, P. J., & Kent, A. (2003). Coaching efficacy as a predictor of leadership style in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tang, M., Fouad, N., & Smith, P. (1999). Asian Americans’ career choices: A path model to examine factors influencing their career choices. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 54, 142–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Theberge, N. (1993). The construction of gender in sport: Women, coaching, and the naturalization of difference. Social Problems, 40, 301–313.Google Scholar
  44. van Vianen, A. E. M. (1999). Managerial self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and work-role salience as determinants of ambition for a managerial position. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 639–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • George B. Cunningham
    • 1
  • Alison J. Doherty
    • 2
  • Melanie J. Gregg
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Health and KinesiologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  3. 3.University of East LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations