Evaluating Agency and Responsibility in Gendered Violence: African American Youth Talk About Violence and Hip Hop
- 1.3k Downloads
The results of this study provide insights into the ways that African American adolescents think about gendered interpersonal violence. African American high school students were invited to discuss images and incidents from contemporary urban music culture (events based on incidents with famous hip hop figures and lyrics from rap music) in a focus group format. We explored how African American youth perceived and responded to examples of gendered violence portrayed in vignettes and musical lyrics. The main analyses focus on the question of how youths’ perceptions of hip hop images, hypothetical stories, and lyrics were linked to their views of “normative” gender interactions and interpersonal relationships for their racial group.
KeywordsAfrican Americans Adolescents Gender Violence Rap
The authors would like to thank the editor and the two anonymous reviewers for their insightful suggestions for revision. We would also like to thank Kira Hudson Banks, William Corrin, Omar Headen, Lumas Helaire, Alicia Ross, Michael Selders, Mary Trujillo, and Jennifer McCall for their invaluable assistance with the focus groups. This study was funded by a grant from the Institute for Research on Women and Gender at the University of Michigan.
- Allen, J. P., & Land, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescence. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 319–335). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence and the moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
- Beatty, A. C. (2005). What is this gangstressism in popular culture? Reading rap music as a legitimate hustle and analyzing the role of agency in intrafemale aggression. Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005.Google Scholar
- Berry, V. (1994). Reedeeming the rap music experience. In J. Epstein (Ed.), Adolescents and their music: If it’s too loud you’re too old (pp. 165–188). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
- Bourque, L. B. (1989). Defining rape. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
- Bravo, E. (1992). The 9 to 5 guide to combating sexual harassment: Candid advice from 9 to 5, the National Association of Working Women. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Breines, W. (2002). What’s love got to do with it? White women, Black women, and feminism in the movement years. Signs, 27, 1095–1133.Google Scholar
- Caraway, N. (1991). Segregated sisterhood: Racism and the politics of American feminism. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
- Carter, P. L. (2005). Keepin’ it real: School success beyond black and white. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control (2004). Sexual violence: Fact sheet. Retrieved June 29, 2006, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/svfacts.htm.
- Collins, P. H. (1991). Black feminist thought. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Collins, P. H. (2004). Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Davis, A. (1981). Women, race and class. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
- Durr, M., & Hill, S. A. (Eds.) (2002). Guest editor’s introduction: Special issue on African American women Gender and Society, 16, 438–441.Google Scholar
- Elam, H. J., & Jackson, K. (Eds.) (2005). Black cultural traffic: Crossroads in global performance and popular culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
- Feminism in Hip Hop Conference (2005, April). Conference archive retrieved January 10, 2006, from http://www.csrpc.uchicago.edu/fhhc/conference_description.shtml.
- Freudenberg, N., Roberts, L., Richie, B. E., Taylor, R. T., McGillicuddy, K., & Greenne, M. B. (1999). Coming up in the boogie down: The role of violence in the lives of adolescents in the South Bronx. Health Education & Behavior, 26, 788–805.Google Scholar
- Gan, S., Zillman, D., & Mitrook, M. (1997). Stereotyping effect of black women’s sexual rap on white audiences. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19(3), 381–399.Google Scholar
- Gerhard, J. F. (2001). Desiring revolution: Second-wave feminism and the rewriting of American sexual thought, 1920–1982. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
- Giddings, P. (1984). When and where I enter: The impact of Black women on race and sex in America. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
- Hooks, B. (1981). Ain’t I a woman: Black women and feminism. Boston, MA: South End.Google Scholar
- Jones, J. (1985). Labor of love, labor of sorrow: Black women, work and the family from slavery to the present. New York: Basic.Google Scholar
- Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- MacKinnon, C. (2004). Directions in sexual harassment law. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
- Marcinak, L. M. (1998). Adolescent attitudes toward victim precipitation of rape. Violence and Victims, 13, 287–300.Google Scholar
- Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Miller, B. C., & Benson, B. (1999). Romantic and sexual relationship development during adolescence. In F. Wyndol & B. Brown (Eds.), Development of romantic relationships in adolescence (pp. 99–121). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Millstein, S. G., & Halpern-Felsher, B. L. (2002). Judgements about risk and perceived invulnerability in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12, 399–422.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, M. (2004). Righteous propagation: African Americans and the politics of racial destiny after Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
- Morgan, D. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (2006). Dating violence facts. Retrieved June 29, 2006, from http://www.participate.net/standup/domesticviolence.
- Roberts, D. (1997). Killing the black body: Race, reproduction, and the meaning of liberty. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
- Romero, R. E. (2000). The icon of the strong Black woman: The paradox of strength. In L. C. Jackson & B. Greene (Eds.), Psychotherapy with African American women: Innovations in psychodynamic perspective and practice (pp. 225–238). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Sanders, S. M. (2003). Teen dating violence: The invisible peril. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Silverman, J. G., Raj, A., Mucci, L. A., & Hathaway, J. E. (2001). Dating violence against adolescent girls and associated substance use, unhealthy weight control, sexual risk behavior, pregnancy, and suicidality. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 572–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Staples, R. (1982). Black masculinity: The Black male’s role in American society. San Francisco: Black Scholar.Google Scholar
- Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (1998). Prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. National Institute of Justice, publication 172837. Retrieved April 29, 2006, from NIJ Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/pubs-sum/210346.htm.
- Trice, D. T. (2004). Morse Avenue harassment calls for action. Chicago Tribune, Available at http://www.chicagotribune.com/archives, March 31.
- Ward, L. M., Hansbrough, E., & Walker, E. (2005). Contributions of music video exposure to black adolescents’ gender and sexual schemas. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20(2), 143–166.Google Scholar
- Whelehan, I. (1995). Modern feminist thought: From the second wave to “post-feminism”. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. E. (1979). Sex role stereotypes, women’s liberation and rape: A cross-cultural analysis of attitudes. Sociological Symposium, 25, 61–97.Google Scholar
- Williams, J. E., & Holmes, K. A. (1981). The second assault: Rape and public attitudes. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
- Wilson, W. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Zucker, A. N., & Cole, E. R. (2006). Black and White women’s perspectives on femininity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. (in press)Google Scholar