Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 9–10, pp 621–632 | Cite as

Living the Image: A Quantitative Approach to Delineating Masculinities

  • Andrew P. SmilerEmail author
Original Article


Authors have repeatedly argued that a nearly exclusive focus on the dominant form of masculinity limits our knowledge of masculinity. Qualitative masculinities researchers have revealed multiple masculine forms, but quantitative researchers have not yet assessed them. This study adopted a social identity approach to examine endorsement of ten typically male images (Average Joe, Businessman, Family Man, Jock, Nerd, Player, Rebel, Sensitive New-Age Guy, Stud, Tough Guy) and their connections to gender norms and traits. Data from 340 male and 348 female adults revealed that identification with each image was related to a particular pattern of norm conformity and trait endorsement. Patterns varied by sex. Findings suggested that distinctions across images may be assessed quantitatively. Implications for quantitative research on masculinities were discussed.


Masculinity Gender roles Stereotypes Social identity Gender differences 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySUNY OswegoOswegoUSA

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