Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 7–8, pp 481–492 | Cite as

Co-occurrence of Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexism, Racism, Homophobia, Ageism, Classism, and Religious Intolerance

  • Allison C. Aosved
  • Patricia J. Long
Original Article

Abstract

Rape myth acceptance has been extensively studied. Little research is available, however, on the relationship of this variable to other oppressive belief systems. A sample of 492 male and 506 female college students completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (short form), the Neosexism Scale, the Modern and Old Fashioned Racism Scale, the Modern Homophobia Scale, a modified version of the Economic Belief Scale, the Fraboni Scale of Ageism, and the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (short form). Because there were no existing measures of intolerance toward multiple religions, the Religious Intolerance Scale was developed for this study (using relevant items from the Godfrey Richman Isms Scale). Findings here suggested that greater racism (both modern and old fashioned), sexism (both modern and old fashioned), homophobia (toward both gay men and lesbians), ageism, classism, and religious intolerance were each associated with greater rape myth acceptance. Moreover, each belief system collectively added to the prediction of rape myth acceptance, although sexism has the highest overlap with rape myth acceptance. Although gender did not moderate the relationship between oppressive belief systems and rape myth acceptance, results, across analyses, did indicate that men reported greater rape myth acceptance than women did. Results point to the interrelatedness of rape myth acceptance, racism, sexism, homophobia, classism, ageism, and religious intolerance.

Keywords

Rape myth Intolerance Sexism Racism Homophobia 

References

  1. Abbey, A., McAuslan, P., & Ross, L. T. (1998). Sexual assault perpetration by college men: The role of alcohol, misperception of sexual intent, and sexual beliefs and experiences. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 17, 167–195.Google Scholar
  2. Agnew, C. R., Thompson, V. D., Smith, V. A., Gramzow, R. H., & Currey, D. P. (1993). Proximal and distal predictors of homophobia: Framing the multivariate roots of outgroup rejection. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 2013–2042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  4. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Berkowitz, A. (1992). College men as perpetrators of acquaintance rape and sexual assault: A review of recent research. Journal of American College Health, 40, 175–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkowitz, A. D., Burkhart, B. R., & Bourg, S. E. (1994). Research on college men and rape. In A. D. Berkowitz (Ed.), Men and rape: Theory, research, and prevention programs in higher education. New Directions for Student Servicews #65, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34, 844–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burt, M. R. (1980). Cultural myths and support for rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 217–230.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Butler, R. N. (1969). Age-ism; Another form of bigotry. Gerontologist, 9, 243–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler, R. N. (1975). Psychiatry and the elderly: An overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 893–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Butler, R. N. (1978). Thoughts on aging. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 14–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Campbell, B., Schellenberg, E. G., & Senn, C. Y. (1997). Evaluating measures of contemporary sexism. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, L., Parks, L. F., Flores, L., & Culross, P. (2006, July). A comprehensive approach: Linking primary prevention and anti-oppression work. Paper presented at the Regional Sexual Violence Prevention Training Institutes—West, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  16. Costin, F., & Schwarz, N. (1987). Beliefs about rape and women’s social roles. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 46–56.Google Scholar
  17. Daugherty, C. G., & Drambrot, F. H. (1986). Reliability of the attitudes toward women scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 46, 449–453.Google Scholar
  18. David, D. S., & Brannon, R. (1976). The forty-nine percent majority. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  19. Ducote-Sabey, D. (1999). Assessing student attitudes toward American Indians: A construct validity study. Masters thesis, Oklahoma State University.Google Scholar
  20. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2000). The uniform crime reports. Retrieved March 30, 2002, from http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ cius_00/00crime2_4.pdf.
  21. Fraboni, M., Saltstone, R., & Hughes, S. (1990). The Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA): An attempt at a more precise measure of ageism. Canadian Journal on Aging, 9, 56–66.Google Scholar
  22. Funk, R. E. (1993). Stopping rape: A challenge for men. Philadelphia, PA: New Society.Google Scholar
  23. Funk, R. E. (2006). Reaching men: Strategies for preventing sexist attitudes, behaviors, and violence. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Life.Google Scholar
  24. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Godfrey, S., Richman, C. L., & Withers, T. N. (2000). Reliability and validity of a new scale to measure prejudice: The GRISMS. Current Psychology: Developmental, Learning, Personality, Social, 19, 3–20.Google Scholar
  26. Goodman, L. A., Koss, M. P., & Russo, N. F. (1993). Violence against women: Physical and mental health effects: II. Research findings. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 2, 79–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grauerholz, L. (2000). An ecological approach to understanding sexual revictimization: Linking personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors and processes. Child Maltreatment, 5, 5–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5(4), 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, B. E., Kluck, D. L., & Schander, P. R. (1997). Rape myth acceptance and sociodemographic characteristics: A multidimensional analysis. Sex Roles, 36, 693–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Katz, J. (2006). The macho paradox: Why some men hurt women and how all men can help. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks.Google Scholar
  31. Koss, M. P., & Dinero, T. E. (1989). Discriminate analysis of risk factors for sexual victimization among a national sample of college women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 242–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Koss, M. P., Gidycz, C. A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 162–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Koss, M. P., Leonard, K. E., Beezely, D. A., & Oros, C. J. (1985). Nonstranger sexual aggression: A discriminate analysis of the psychological characteristics of the undetected offender. Sex Roles, 12, 981–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kowalewski, D., McIlwee, J. S., & Prunty, R. (1995). Sexism, racism, and establishmentism. Journal of Black Studies, 26, 201–215.Google Scholar
  35. Lang, K., & Lee-Pethel, R. (2006). Preventing sexual and intimate partner violence with racial/ethnic minority communities: Addressing intersectionality. Paper presented at the Regional Sexual Violence Prevention Training Institutes—West, San Diego, CA (July).Google Scholar
  36. Larsen, K. S., & Long, E. (1988). Attitudes toward sex-roles: Traditional or egalitarian? Sex Roles, 19, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewis, D. K. (1977). A response to inequality: Black women, racism, and sexism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 3, 339–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1994). Rape myths: In review. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 133–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1995). Attitudinal antecedents of rape myth acceptance: A theoretical and empirical reexamination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 704–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Loo, R., & Logan, P. (1977). Investigation of the attitudes toward women scale in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 9, 201–204.Google Scholar
  41. Lott, B. (2002). Cognitive and behavioral distancing from the poor. American Psychologist, 57, 100–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Malamuth, N. M., Sockloskie, R. J., Koss, M. P., & Tanaka, J. S. (1991). Characteristics of aggressors against women: Testing a model using a national sample of college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 670–681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marx, B.P., Van Wie, V., & Gross, A. M. (1996). Date rape risk factors: A review and methodological critique of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 1, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. McConahay, J. B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism (pp. 91–125). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  45. McHugh, M. C., & Frieze, I. H. (1997). The measurement of gender-role attitudes: A review and commentary. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Messman-Moore, T. L., & Long, P. J. (2002). The role of childhood sexual abuse sequelae in sexual revictimization: An empirical review and theoretical reformulation. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 537–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Murphy, W. D., Coleman, E. M., & Haynes, M. R. (1986). Factors related to coercive sexual behavior in a nonclinical sample of males. Violence and Victims, 1, 255–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Myers, J. K., & Bean, L. L. (1968). A decade later: A follow up of social class and mental illness. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  49. Nurius, P. S., & Norris, J. (1996). A cognitive ecological model of women’s response to male sexual coercion in dating. In E. S. Byers & L. F. O’Sullivan (eds.), Sexual coercion in dating relationships (pp. 117–139). New York: Hawthorne.Google Scholar
  50. Payne, D. L., Lonsway, K. A., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1999). Rape myth acceptance: Exploration of its structure and its measurement using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 27–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Polimeni, A. M., Hardie, E., & Buzwell, S. (2000). Homophobia among Australian heterosexuals: The role of sex, gender role ideology, and gender role traits. Current Research in Social Psychology, 5, 47–62.Google Scholar
  52. Raja, S., & Stokes, J. P. (1998). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: The Modern Homophobia Scale. Journal of Gays, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity, 3, 113–134.Google Scholar
  53. Reynolds, W. M. (1982). Development of reliable and valid short forms of the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 119–125.Google Scholar
  54. Richman, C. L., Kenton, L., Helfst, C., & Gaggar, N. (2004). The probability of intervention: Gender X “isms” effects. Social Behavior and Personality, 32, 295–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sidanius, J. (1993). The interface between racism and sexism. Journal of Psychology, 127, 311–322.Google Scholar
  56. Sidanius, J., Pratto, F., van Laar, C., & Levin, S. (2004). Social dominance theory: Its agenda and method. Political Psychology, 25, 845–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, K. T. (1971). Homophobia: A tentative personality profile. Psychological Reports, 29, 1091–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith, R. L., & Bradley, D. W. (1980). In defense of the Attitudes Toward Women Scale: An affirmation of the validity and reliability. Psychological Reports, 47, 511–522.Google Scholar
  59. Spence, J. T., & Hahn, E. D. (1997). The Attitudes Toward Women Scale and attitude change in college students. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 17–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. (1972). The Attitudes Toward Women Scale: An objective instrument to measure the rights and roles of women in contemporary society. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 2, 66.Google Scholar
  61. Stevenson, M. R., & Medler, B. R. (1995). Is homophobia a weapon of sexism? Journal of Men’s Studies, 4, 1–8.Google Scholar
  62. Stoops, N. (2004). Educational attainment in the United States: 2003. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 2, 2006, from http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-550.pdf.
  63. Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thompson, E. H., Gristani, C., & Pleck, J. H. (1985). Attitudes toward the male role and their correlates. Sex Roles, 13, 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tougas, F., Brown, R., Beaton, A. M., & Joly, S. (1995). Neosexism: Plus ca change, plus c’est pareil. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 842–849.Google Scholar
  66. Wantland, R. (2005). Teaching to learn: Social justice theory and sexual assault prevention. Paper presented at the National Sexual Assault Conference: A National Conference on Sexual Violence Prevention and Intervention, Pittsburgh, PA (September).Google Scholar
  67. White, J. W., & Koss, M. P. (1993). Adolescent sexual aggression within heterosexual relationships: Prevalence, characteristics, and causes. In H. E. Barabee, W. L. Marshall & S. M. Hudson (eds.), The juvenile sex offender (pp. 182–202). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Center for PTSDHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of La VerneLa VerneUSA

Personalised recommendations