Advertisement

Sex Roles

, Volume 55, Issue 3–4, pp 259–266 | Cite as

Implicit and Explicit Occupational Gender Stereotypes

  • Michael J. White
  • Gwendolen B. White
Original Article

Abstract

This study was designed to compare implicit and explicit occupational gender stereotypes for three occupations (engineer, accountant, and elementary school teacher). These occupations represented the end points and middle of a masculine–feminine continuum of explicit occupational gender stereotypes. Implicit stereotypes were assessed using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), which is believed to minimize self-presentational biases common with explicit measures of occupational gender stereotypes. IAT results for the most gender stereotyped occupations, engineer (masculine) and elementary school teacher (feminine), were comparable to explicit ratings. There was less agreement with less stereotyped comparisons. Results indicated that accounting was implicitly perceived as more masculine than explicit measures indicate, which calls into question reports of diminishing gender stereotyping for such occupations.

Keywords

Occupational gender stereotypes Implicit stereotypes Stereotypes Implicit Association Test 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Rachel Blalock, Beau Isley, Michiko Iwasaki, and Vance Jackson collected data by serving as experimenters for this study. We appreciate their generous help.

References

  1. Banaji, M. R., Hardin, C., & Rothman, A. J. (1993). Implicit stereotyping in person judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 272–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banse, R., Seise, J., & Zerbes, N. (2001). Implicit attitudes towards homosexuality: Reliability, validity, and controllability of the IAT. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 145–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beggs, J. M., & Doolittle, D. C. (1993). Perceptions now and then of occupational sex typing: A replication of Shinar’s 1975 study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1435–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Betsch, T., Plessner, H., Schwieren, C., & Gütig, R. (2001). I like you but I don’t know why: A value-account approach to implicit attitude formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 242–253.Google Scholar
  5. Brunel, F. F., Tietje, B. C., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). Is the implicit association test a valid and valuable measure of implicit consumer social cognition? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14, 385–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cejka, M. A., & Eagly, A. H. (1999). Gender-stereotypic images of occupations correspond to the sex segregation of employment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 413–423.Google Scholar
  7. Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub. L. No. 88-352, 78 Stat. 241 (1964).Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cunningham, W. A., Preacher, K. J., & Banaji, M. R. (2001). Implicit attitude measures: Consistency, stability, and convergent validity. Psychological Science, 121, 163–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B., & Howard, A. (1997). On the nature of prejudice: Automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 510–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Draine, S. (2003). Inquisit (Version 1.33) [Computer Software]. Seattle, Washington: Millisecond Software.Google Scholar
  12. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardes, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Glick, P., Wilk, K., & Perreault, M. (1995). Images of occupations: Components of gender and status in occupational stereotypes. Sex Roles, 32, 565–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenwald, A. G., & Nosek, B. A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48, 85–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369–1385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Katz, D., & Braly, K. (1935). Racial prejudice and stereotypes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 30, 175–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kawakami, K., & Dovidio, J. F. (2001). The reliability of implicit stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 212–225.Google Scholar
  22. Kunda, Z., & Spencer, S. J. (2003). When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theoretical framework for stereotype activation and application. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 522–544.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2005). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 166–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Shinar, E. H. (1975). Sexual stereotypes of occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 7, 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Social Security Administration (n.d.). Most popular names of the 1980s. Retrieved November 30, 2002, from http://www.ssa.gov/OACT/babynames/1999/top1000of80s.html.
  26. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  27. Stangor, C., & Shaller, M. (1996). Stereotypes as individual and collective representations. In C. Macrae, C. Stangor, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping (pp. 3–40). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  28. U.S. Department of Labor. (2004). Women in the labor force: A databook. (Bureau of Labor Statistics Report 973). Washington, District of Columbia: Author. Retrieved May 21, 2004, from http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook.htm.
  29. White, M. J., Kruczek, T. A., Brown, M. T., & White, G. B. (1989). Occupational sex stereotypes among college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 34, 289–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Yoder, J. D., & Schleicher, T. L. (1996). Undergraduates regard deviation from occupational gender stereotypes as costly for women. Sex Roles, 34, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling PsychologyBall State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.Department of AccountingBall State UniversityMuncieUSA

Personalised recommendations