Sex Roles

, Volume 54, Issue 7–8, pp 429–445

Ethnicity and Gender Stereotypes of Emotion

  • Amanda M. Durik
  • Janet Shibley Hyde
  • Amanda C. Marks
  • Amanda L. Roy
  • Debra Anaya
  • Gretchen Schultz
Original Paper


In three studies we investigated gender stereotypes of emotions among four ethnic groups in the U.S., using persons from these groups as informants about their own groups. European Americans’ reports of stereotypes were compared to those of African Americans (Study 1), Hispanic Americans (Study 2), and Asian Americans (Study 3). The examination of group differences was interpreted based on variations across ethnicities in norms concerning emotional expression and gender roles. Overall, gender stereotypes of emotion were evident among all ethnic groups studied, but European Americans’ gender stereotypes were the most gender differentiated. For example, European American stereotypes held that men express more pride than women do, but African Americans’ stereotypes of pride for men and women did not differ. Similarly, whereas among European Americans, women were stereotyped to express much more love than men do, the gender difference was smaller among Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans. These different norms may pose challenges for inter-cultural interactions, and they point to the importance of considering both gender and ethnicity simultaneously in the study of emotions.


Ethnicity Gender stereotypes Emotional expression 


  1. Ashmore, R. D., & Del Boca, F. K. (1981). Conceptual approaches to stereotypes and stereotyping. In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.), Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 1–35). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Bander, R., & Betz, N. (1981). The relationship of sex and sex role to trait and situationally specific anxiety types. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 312–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bem, S., Martyna, W., & Watson, C. (1976). Sex typing and androgyny: Further explorations of the expressive domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 1016–1023.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennett, J. L., & Powell, G. E. (1980). The Subjective Memory Questionnaire (SMQ): An investigation into the self-reporting of “real life” memory skills. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 177–188.Google Scholar
  5. Birnbaum, D. W., Nosanchuk, T. A., & Crull, W. L. (1980). Children’s stereotypes about sex differences in emotionality. Sex Roles, 29, 435–443.Google Scholar
  6. Block, J. H. (1973). Conceptions of sex role: Some cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 28, 512–526.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brody, L. R. (1999). Social motives, power and roles. In L. R. Brody (Ed.), Gender, emotion, and the family (pp. 201–226). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 447–460). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Brody, L., Hay, D. H., & Vandewater, E. (1990). Gender, gender-role identity and children’s reported feelings toward the same and opposite sex. Sex Roles, 23, 363–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bureau of Labor Statistics, (n.d.). Table 3. Employment status by race, age, sex and Hispanic origin, 2002 annual averages. Retrieved October 6, 2004, from Scholar
  11. Carlson, R. (1971). Sex differences in ego functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 37, 267–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dien, D. S. (1999). Chinese authority-directed orientation and Japanese peer-group orientation: Questioning the notion of collectivism. Review of General Psychology, 3, 372–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dillon, K., Wolf, E., & Katz, H. (1985). Sex roles, gender, and fear. Journal of Psychology, 119, 355–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Eagly, A. H., & Steffen, V. J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 735–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Espin, O. M. (1986). Cultural and historical influences on sexuality in Hispanic/Latin women. In J. Cole (Ed.), All American women: Lines that divide, ties that bind (pp. 272–284). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fabes, R. A., & Martin, C. L. (1991). Gender and age stereotypes of emotionality. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 532–540.Google Scholar
  17. Fischer, A. H., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2000). The relation between gender and emotions in different cultures. In A. H. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social psychological perspectives (pp. 71–94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum model of impression formation from category-based to individuating processes: Influence of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1–74). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. Flannagan, D., & Perese, S. (1998). Emotional references in mother-daughter and mother-son dyads’ conversations about school. Sex Roles, 39, 353–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frymier, A. B., Klopf, D. W., & Ishii, S. (1990). Japanese and Americans compared on the affect orientation construct. Psychological Reports, 66, 985–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. (1996). The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993). Sex differences in intensity of emotional experience: A social role interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1010–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gudykunst, W. B., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Culture and affective communication. American Behavioral Scientist, 31, 384–400.Google Scholar
  24. Higginbotham, E., & Weber, L. (1992). Moving up with kin and community: Upward social mobility for Black and White women. Gender & Society, 6, 417–440.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, J. T., & Shulman, G. A. (1988). More alike than meets the eye: Perceived gender differences in subjective experience and its display. Sex Roles, 19, 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim, B. S., Yang, P. H., Atkinson, D. R., Wolfe, M. M., & Hong, S. (2001). Cultural value similarities and differences among Asian American ethnic groups. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 343–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. R. (1994). Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  28. Kopper, B., & Epperson, D. (1991). Women and anger: Sex and sex role comparisons in the expression of anger. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. LaFrance, M., & Carmen, B. (1980). The nonverbal display of psychology androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. LaFrance, M., & Mayo, C. (1978). Cultural aspects of nonverbal communication: A review essay. International Journal of Inter cultural Relations, 2, 71–89.Google Scholar
  31. LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1971). Ethnocentrism: Theories of conflict, ethnic attitudes, and group behavior. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Liem, R., Lim, B. A., & Liem, J. H. (2000). Acculturation and emotion among Asian Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6, 13–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lutwak, N., Razzino, B. E., & Ferrari, J. R. (1998). Self-perceptions and moral affect: An exploratory analysis of subcultural diversity in guilt and shame emotions. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13, 333–348.Google Scholar
  34. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 224–253.Google Scholar
  35. Matsumoto, D. (1993). Ethnic differences in affect intensity, emotion judgments, display rule attitudes, and self-reported emotional expression in an American sample. Motivation and Emotion, 17, 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maxwell, S. E. (2004). The persistence of underpowered studies in psychological research: Causes, consequences, and remedies. Psychological Methods, 9, 147–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McContha, J., Lightner, E., & Deaner, S. (1994). Culture, age, and gender variables in the expression of emotions. Journal oj’Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 481–488.Google Scholar
  38. Mesquita, B. (2001). Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. National Center for Education Statistics. (2003). Digest of education statistics, Table 209. Retrieved June 1, 2005, from Scholar
  40. Niemann, Y. F., Jennings, L., Rozelle, R. M., Baxter, J. C., & Sullivan, E. (1994). Use of free responses and cluster analysis to determine stereotypes of eight groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 114, 29–51.Google Scholar
  41. Okazaki, S. (2002). Influences of culture on Asian Americans’ sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 34–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ortony, A., & Turner, T. (1990). What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Oyserman, D. (1993). The lens of personhood: Viewing the self, others, and conflict in a multicultural society. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 993–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oyserman, D., Gant, D., & Ager, J. (1996). A socially contextualized model of African American identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1216–1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1993). The sociocultural self. In J. Suls & A. G. Greenwald (Eds.), Psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 4, pp. 187–220). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  46. Plant, E. A., Hyde, J. S., Keltner, D., & Devine, P. G. (2000). Gender stereotyping of emotion. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, 81–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rodriguez Mosquera, P. M., Manstead, A. S. R., & Fischer, A. H. (2000). The role of honor-related values in the elicitation, experience, and communication of pride, shame and anger: Spain and the Netherlands compared. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 833–844.Google Scholar
  48. Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I. K., & Broverman, D. M. (1968). Sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ruan, F. (1991). Sex in China. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  50. Ruble, T. L. (1983). Sex stereotypes: Issues of change in the 1970s. Sex Roles, 9, 397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Russell, J. A. (1991). Culture and the categorization of emotions. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 428–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shaffer, D. R., Pegalis, L., & Cornell, D. P. (1981). Interactive effects of social context and sex role identity on female self-disclosure during the acquaintance process. Sex Roles, 24, 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates and antecedents. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  54. Triandis, H. C. (1972). The analysis of subjective culture. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  55. Triandis, H. C., Marin, G., Lisansky, J., & Betancourt, H. (1984). Simpatia as a cultural script of Hispanics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1363–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language and cultural scripts. In S. Kitayama & H. R. Markus (Eds.), Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 133–196). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1990). Measuring sex stereotypes: A multination study. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  58. Williams, M. K., McCandies, T., & Dunlap, M. R. (2002). Women of color and feminist psychology: Moving from criticism and critique to integration and application. In L. H. Collins, M. R. Dunlap, & J. C. Chrisler, Charting a new course for feminist psychology (pp. 65–89). Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  59. Zahn-Waxler, C., Friedman, R. J., Cole, P. M., Mizula, I., & Hiruma, N. (1996). Japanese and United States preschool children’s responses to conflict and distress. Child Development, 67, 2462–2477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda M. Durik
    • 1
    • 2
  • Janet Shibley Hyde
    • 1
  • Amanda C. Marks
    • 1
  • Amanda L. Roy
    • 1
  • Debra Anaya
    • 1
  • Gretchen Schultz
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA

Personalised recommendations