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The World According to Men: It Is Hierarchical and Stereotypical


The present research was designed to test whether people who expect social relationships to be structured like pecking orders (interpersonal hierarchy expectation, IHE) are also prone to stereotyping and whether this relation is moderated by gender. In two studies, a total of 203 participants completed a self-report questionnaire on IHE (Interpersonal Hierarchy Expectation Scale, IHES) and either a questionnaire that measures a general tendency to stereotype (Acceptance of Stereotyping Questionnaire, ASQ, Study 1) or a projective measure that assesses the specific gender stereotype that low dominance positions are occupied by women and high dominance positions by men (Study 2). Results showed that both stereotyping measures were related to IHE, but only for men. Moreover, trait dominance did not mediate the relation between IHE and stereotyping.

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Author information

Correspondence to Marianne Schmid Mast.

Additional information

Parts of the data were presented at the meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences in Graz, Austria, July 2003.

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Mast, M.S. The World According to Men: It Is Hierarchical and Stereotypical. Sex Roles 53, 919–924 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-8310-6

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Key Words

  • hierarchy
  • social perception
  • stereotyping
  • gender