Sex Roles

, Volume 53, Issue 7–8, pp 531–544 | Cite as

The Development and Validation of the Genderism and Transphobia Scale

  • Darryl B. HillEmail author
  • Brian L. B. Willoughby


A series of three studies were conducted to develop and validate a scale to measure violence, harassment, and discrimination toward cross-dressers, transgenderists, and transsexuals. In Study 1, we developed the Genderism and Transphobia Scale (GTS). In Study 2, we established the GTS's ability to predict parents' reactions to either a gender conforming or a gender non-conforming boy or girl. Correlations between the GTS and scales that assess homophobia and gender role ideologies suggest convergent validity. In Study 3, we conducted a factor analysis of the scale, found further evidence of the scale's discriminant and convergent validity, and tested the scale's ability to predict previous contact with gender non-conformists. Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the basic psychometric properties of a new and useful scale to measure antipathy toward people who cross genders and sexes.


genderism transphobia hate transsexual prejudice transgender 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Staten IslandCity University of New YorkNew York
  2. 2.University of MiamiMiami
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyCollege of Staten IslandStaten Island

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