Global networks of genetically modified crops technology: a patent citation network analysis
- 124 Downloads
This paper employs the patent data of four major genetically modified (GM) crops, soybeans, cotton, maize and rapeseed, to illustratee how the innovation of GM crop technology diffused and distributed globally over time. Data collected from the Derwent Innovation Index, were employed to construct country patent citation networks, from 1984 to 2015, and the results revealed that developed countries were early adopters, and the primary actors in the innovation of GM crop technology. Only seven developing countries appeared in the country citation network. Most developed countries were reluctant to apply GM crop technology for commercial cultivation. Private businesses stood out in the patent citation network. The early adoption and better performance of developed countries can be explained by the activities of large established private companies.
KeywordsGenetically modified technology Technology diffusion Patent citation network Globalization
Mathematics Subject Classification91D30
We would like to thank Brittany N. Anderton for her advice about the keywords searching of genetically modified technology; Billy Liu and Lixiang Wu for their suggestions about network extraction; Joe Egan for English language editing. This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 71573241); China Scholarship Council (CSC) Research Program.
- Brantle, T. F., & Fallah, M. H. (2007). Complex innovation networks, patent citations and power laws. In IEEE Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology (pp. 540–549).Google Scholar
- Canadian Biotechnology Action Network (CBAN). (2015). Where in the world are GM crops and foods? (p. 30). Ottava, Ontario: Canadian Biotechnology Action Network (CBAN). Retrieved from https://gmoinquiry.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/where-in-the-world-gm-crops-foods.pdf.
- Caselli, F., & Coleman II, W. J. (2001). Cross-country technology diffusion: The case of computers. National bureau of economic research, working paper 8130, February.Google Scholar
- Conko, G. (2012). Is There a Future for Generic Biotech Crops? (p. 7). Regulatory Reform is Needed for a Viable Post-Patent Industry: Issue Analysis.Google Scholar
- Friends of the earth international. (2014). Who benefits from gm crops? (p. 48). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Friends of the earth international. Retrieved from https://www.foeeurope.org/sites/default/files/publications/foei_who_benefits_from_gm_crops_2014.pdf.
- Griliches, Z. (1990). Patent statistics as economic indicators: a survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 28, 1661–1707.Google Scholar
- Hall, B. H., & Khan, B. (2003). Adoption of new technology, NBER Working Paper No. 9730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
- Ho, M. H., & Cheo, H. Y. (2014). Analyzing the brokerage roles of stakeholders in a technological network: A study of GMO plant technologies. In IEEE Portland international conference on management of engineering and technology (pp. 3144–3154).Google Scholar
- Jaffe, A. B., & de Rassenfosse, G. (2016). Patent citation data in social science research: overview and best practices. NBER Working Paper, 21868.Google Scholar
- James C. (2015). Global Status of Commercialized Biotech/GM Crops: 2015. Retrieved from http://www.isaaa.org/resources/publications/briefs/51/essays/default.asp.
- Luan, C., Hou, H., & Wang, X. (2012). Mapping the evolution of technology network in the field of solar energy technology. In 17th international conference on science and technology indicators (STI), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
- MON89034 | GM Approval Database- ISAAA.org. (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2017, from http://www.isaaa.org/gmapprovaldatabase/event/default.asp?EventID=95.
- Niosi, J., Hanel, P., & Reid, S. (2013). The international diffusion of biotechnology: the arrival of developing countries. In Long term economic development, Berlin: Springer (pp. 223–241).Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations (Vol. 12). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Vietnam approves commercial crops of GMO corn to cut imports. (2015, March 19). Thanh Nien Daily. Retrieved from http://www.thanhniennews.com/business/vietnam-approves-commercial-crops-of-gmo-corn-to-cut-imports-40016.html.