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Under-cited influential work by Eugene Garfield

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We show that Eugene Garfield published articles which are neither highly cited nor completely ignored, but had a clear influence on subsequent citation generations. More precisely, we found ten articles that are under-cited influential publications, in the sense given to this expression in our earlier work. By publishing this investigation we hope to contribute to the remembrance of this great pioneer in our field.

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  1. Boyack, K., Klavans, R., & Börner, K. (2005). Mapping the backbone of science. Scientometrics, 64(3), 351–374.

  2. Cawkell, A. E., & Garfield, E. (2001). Institute for scientific information. In E. H. Fredriksson (Ed.), A Century of Science Publishing: A Collection of Essays, (pp. 149–160). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

  3. Egghe, L., Guns, R., & Rousseau, R. (2011). Thoughts on uncitedness: Nobel laureates and fields medalists as case studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1637–1644.

  4. Garfield, E. (1955). Citation indexes for science: A new dimension through association of ideas. Science, 122(3159), 108–111.

  5. Garfield, E. (1963). Science Citation Index. An international interdisciplinary index to the literature of science. Philadelphia: Institute for Scientific information.

  6. Garfield, E. (1972). Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation- Journals can be ranked by frequency and impact of citations for science policy studies. Science, 178(4060), 471–479.

  7. Garfield, E. (1980). Excerpta Medica. Abstracting the biomedical literature for the medical specialist. Current Contents, (Issue 28, July 14).

  8. Garfield, E. (1987). New compounds and reactions are as close as your PC with the Index Chemicus and Current Chemical-Reactions personal databases. Current Contents, (Issue 9, March 2).

  9. Garfield, E. (2001). Recollections of Irving H. Sher 1924–1996: Polymath/information scientist extraordinaire. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52(14), 1197–1202.

  10. Garfield, E., Revesz, G. S., Granito, C. E., Dorr, H. A., Calderon, M. M., & Warner, A. (1970). Index chemicus registry system: Pragmatic approach to substructure chemical retrieval. Journal of Chemical Documentation, 10(1), 54–58.

  11. Hu, X. J., & Rousseau, R. (2016). Scientific influence is not always visible: The phenomenon of under-cited influential publications. Journal of Informetrics, 10(4), 1079–1091.

  12. Hu, X. J., & Rousseau, R. (2017a). Nobel Prize Winners 2016: Igniting or sparking foundational publications? Scientometrics, 110(1), 1053–1063.

  13. Hu, X. J., & Rousseau, R. (2017b). Do under-cited influential sleeping beauties exist? Proceedings of ISSI2017 (to appear).

  14. Hu, X. J., Rousseau, R., & Chen, J. (2011). On the definition of forward and backward citation generations. Journal of Informetrics, 5(1), 27–36.

  15. Leydesdorff, L. (1998). Theories of citation? Scientometrics, 43(1), 5–25.

  16. Moed, H. F., Burger, W. J. M., Frankfort, J. G., & van Raan, A. F. J. (1985). The use of bibliometric data for the measurement of university research performance. Research Policy, 14(3), 131–149.

  17. Moed, H. F., de Bruin, R. E., & van Leeuwen, T. N. (1995). New bibliometric tools for the assessment of national research performance—database description, overview of indicators and first applications. Scientometrics, 33(3), 381–422.

  18. Zunde, P. (1971). Structural models of complex information sources. Information Storage and Retrieval, 7(1), 1–18.

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This work is supported by a grant of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC Grant No. 71573225). The authors would like to thank Yuning Zhang for her help in data collection.

Author information

Correspondence to Ronald Rousseau.



1. Bernhard, S.A., Garfield, E. and Hammett, L.P. (1954). Specific effects in acid catalysis by ion exchange resins. 3. Some observations of the effects of polyvalent cations. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76(4), 991–992.

2. Garfield, E. (1962). An algorithm for translating chemical names to molecular formulas. Journal of Chemical Documentation, 2(3), 177–179.

3. Garfield, E. (1963). Citation indexes in sociological and historical research. American Documentation, 14(4), 289–291.

4. Garfield, E. & Sher, I.H. (1967). ISI’s experiences with ASCA—A selective dissemination system. Journal of Chemical Documentation, 7(3), 147–153.

5. Garfield, E. & Sher, I.H. (1967). ASCA (Automatic Subject Citation Alert)—A new personalized current awareness service for scientists. American Behavioral Scientist, 10(5), 29–32.

6. Garfield, E. (1976). Science in France—too provincial. La Recherche, 7(70), 757–760.

7. Garfield, E. and Welljams-Dorof, A. (1990).The impact of fraudulent research on the scientific literature—The Stephen E. Breuning case. JAMA – Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(10), 1424–1426.

8. Garfield, E. (1998). Random thoughts on citationology. Its theory and practice—Comments on theories of citation? Scientometrics, 43(1), 69–76.

9. Garfield, E. (1998). From citation indexes to informetrics: Is the tail now wagging the dog? Libri, 48(2), 67–80.

10. Garfield, E., Pudovkin, A.I. and Istomin, V.S. (2003). Why do we need algorithmic historiography? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 54(5), 400–412.

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Rousseau, R., Hu, X. Under-cited influential work by Eugene Garfield. Scientometrics 114, 651–657 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2530-8

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